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12 Improving Safety-Related Rules Compliance in the Public Transportation Industry because people may respond based on the questionnaire administrator's expectations. Recent research has focused on the use of implicit measures of attitude. Adapted from the field of social cognition, the implicit attitude test (IAT) measures unconscious attitudes, which are impervi- ous to experimental demand characteristics. Using the IAT, aviation researchers have demon- strated that the use of this tool, at least experimentally, can identify pilots who are likely to make risky flight decisions (Molesworth and Chang 2009). However, this research is still in its infancy and is not ready for practical application. Summary Points Traditional psychometric inventories are not useful for identifying individuals as having risk-taking personalities; therefore, they do not serve as useful screening tools for the hiring process. High scores on the risk-taking scales of the JPI-R were associated with failure to comply with PPE requirements. The applicability of this study to public transportation is limited. Identifying the situational factors that influence risk taking in public transit operations is use- ful. Examples of factors to consider include length of time an organization has without inci- dent, length of time an individual is on the job without incident, and the number of employee incidents he, or she, successfully recovers from. DWI convictions are predictors of pilot risk-taking behavior; however, there is no empirical evidence to suggest this as a predictor in public transit operations. The IAT is a promising methodology that may be adapted as a practical tool to identify indi- viduals who may engage in risk-taking behavior. This may lead to improved employee screen- ing and targeted training. Training Training employees is an effective way to promote safety-related rules compliance. Tannenbaum, Beard, McNall, and Salas (2009) report that learning in organizations needs to address four core areas: Intent to learn Experience and action Feedback Reflection To optimize training effectiveness, employees need to be prepared for the learning experience. An organization can accomplish this by informing employees about upcoming training oppor- tunities and requirements. The information about training should include why the organization is sponsoring it, the goals and objectives, and any potential benefits. Improving Self-Efficacy Research shows that even under optimal training circumstances, individual differences related to an employee's intention to learn plays a role in training effectiveness. Some individuals have low self-efficacy. This refers to a person's belief that he or she has the capacity to successfully perform specific behaviors or tasks. Day et al. (2007) describe how Bandura's (1978) social learning theory can be used to promote behavior modeling to mitigate the effects of low self-efficacy. Behavior modeling fosters confidence and promotes skill development in those with low self-efficacy. These researchers examined the effects of a collaborative training protocol for improving employee self-efficacy. Active interlocked modeling (AIM) requires trainees to practice half of a training task and then observe a partner performing the remaining half of the task. Results from

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Understanding Rules Noncompliance 13 this study indicate that training with an experienced partner using AIM provides an effective way to increase self-efficacy. Effective Types of Training The type of experience one has during training influences its effectiveness. The three types of action-based, or experiential, training included in the review are on-the-job (OJT), computer- based, and simulation. None of these training techniques should be used alone. Rather a balanced combination of them provides optimal training effectiveness. On-the-Job Training The use of OJT is most appropriate when work procedures need to be passed on to employees and implemented immediately. This can occur during initial job orientation as well as when there are new procedures that need to be trained long after an individual is hired. The advantages of OJT include that the organization does not have to hire trainers or conduct training offsite, which can be costly. However, OJT does take supervisors away from their regular duties and potentially increases supervisor workload. Mullaney and Trask (1992) also point out that supervisors and subject-matter experts are not always exceptional trainers. Their proficiency may cause them to skip certain steps in the process that learners, particularly those with low self-efficacy, need to understand. Additionally, OJT must meet the needs of the trainee so that it builds upon his or her existing skill set. OJT is also a good opportunity to use the commentary drive technique (McKenna, Horswill, and Alexander 2006). During training, instructors in the vehicle (or cab) observe and then give feedback after the session concludes. Observing other employees' commentary drive sessions is also an effective training tool and is easily implemented using video recording of OJT sessions. Derouin, Parrish, and Salas (2005) provide several guidelines for optimizing the effectiveness of OJT including the following: Ensure upper management support for OJT. Standardize OJT programs. Include training staff in the design and development of OJT programs. Train the trainer. Prepare trainees for OJT. Provide descriptive, but not evaluative, feedback during training. Encourage practice in a non-evaluative environment, allowing trainees to make errors where possible. Evaluate OJT effectiveness. Computer-Based Training Computer-based training (CBT) can also be incorporated into a successful training program. It can be conducted during work hours, linked to the Internet for remote access, and incorpo- rated into classroom-led instruction. Fisher et al. (2002) found that PC-based risk awareness training reduces the likelihood of risk-taking behavior, though this research only examined young, inexperienced drivers. Horrey, Lesch, Kramer, and Melton (2009) systematically examined the effectiveness of CBT of distraction mitigation. Research demonstrates that operators may not be aware of the dis- tracting effects of in-vehicle tasks on performance (Horrey, Lesch, and Garabet 2008; Lesch and Hancock 2004). As such, zero-tolerance policies regarding the operation of electronic