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Best Practices You Can Use 43 How it works. The CRM training program emphasizes human factors. All new employees working in operational areas requiring this training receive their introductory information during the orientation process. To reinforce this initial training, annual recurrent training is also provided. In addition, to be successful, the program must receive the full support from the company's exec- utive management as well as from the operational managers. A successful CRM program is one that becomes an integral part of the corporate culture. Again, CRM training goes beyond crew interaction, and encourages all employees to use all available resources to complete the tasks safely. The operating mantra becomes "what is right" and not "who is right." Results. Through emphasis on resource management and human factors, CRM programs have been a highly successful strategy in substantially reducing accidents through the management of errors. Much of the training could also be applied to the public transportation industry, particularly with those employees who work together as a crew (train operations, track crew) or those who work directly with other employees such as operators and dispatchers (bus operations or light rail). For more information. Additional information regarding crew resource management is available from the following resources: U.S. Department of Transportation. (1992). Crew Resource Management: An Introductory Handbook. Report No. DOT/FAA/RD-92/26, DOT/VNTSC-FAA-92-8. Washington, DC: Research and Development Services. Kern, Tony. (2001). Controlling Pilot Error: Culture, Environment, and CRM. New York: McGraw Hill. Beaty, David. (1995). The Naked Pilot: The Human Factor in Aircraft Accidents. Shrewsbury, England. Airlife Publishing Company. Number of teams trained Communication Communication plays a key role in a safety-related rules compliance program. A number of techniques exist for informing employees of new rules as well as encouraging compliance. The techniques described in this section supplement any training that occurs. Proactive Rules Communication Communicating the purpose of a safety-related rule and the consequences of noncompliance helps to reinforce compliance with the rule. Posters are an effective means for doing this. Figure 5 contains a poster designed to communicate Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority's (LACMTA) cell phone policy. Posters such as this one may be placed in the operator/crew reporting area or any other location where the target group of employees frequently passes. Safety or training bulletins are another method for proactively communicating with employees. These bulletins might provide an actual example of the conse- quences of a rule violation at the transit agency or at another transit agency. The bulletin might be in the form of a poster or a more detailed document that is posted on a bulletin board. Figure 6 contains a safety bulletin from Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA) in the form of a poster. This bulletin is an example of how an incident that occurred at the transit agency can become Figure 5. Example of poster from a learning experience for others. LACMTA.
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44 Improving Safety-Related Rules Compliance in the Public Transportation Industry Figure 6. OCTA safety bulletin for posting. Many transit agencies have a rule of the day/week as a means to proactively maintain employee knowledge of the rules. San Diego Trolley, Inc. (SDTI) publishes Rule of the Week for posting in crew areas (see Figure 7). Many transit agencies discuss the rule of the day at a daily job briefing. % of crew reporting locations with bulletin boards or variable message signs % of rule changes posted Opportunities to Ask Questions Metro-North Crew Debriefing Rules training classes provide an opportunity for employees to ask questions Metro-North Railroad (MNR) about the intent or application of a rule, but the employee needs a means to found that conducting a crew resolve issues after the class ends and he or she is back on duty. Some transit agen- debriefing at the end of the cies encourage trainees to contact their instructor with questions that arise on the day's runs is an effective way job. A daily job or safety briefing is another means for doing this. The rule of the to reinforce knowledge and day/week may be discussed at this time. SDTI provides guidance to its supervisors application of its operating for these types of discussions (see Figure 8). Some public transit agencies also con- rules. The engineer and con- duct periodic safety meetings with their employees. These meetings provide an ductor(s) spend a few minutes opportunity to review recent rules changes and to allow employees to ask ques- with their supervisor talking tions. Safety meetings are longer than daily job briefings. Conducting them may about what happened that require removing employees from their job or paying them overtime to partici- day. They focus on any unanti- pate after their normal work period. Unfortunately, budgetary and logistical con- cipated occurrences, such as siderations may prevent a transit agency from doing this. a crossing gate being out of There must also be an opportunity for employees to ask questions and voice service, and how they handled their concerns outside of the formal meetings. Having an open door policy where them, mentioning the rules supervisors and managers make themselves available encourages employees to that they applied. This is now seek help or raise issues. Having a blame-free safety culture in the organization standard practice at MNR. assures employees that there will be no retribution for asking questions. Number of safety meetings or other discussion opportunities
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Best Practices You Can Use 45 Figure 7. Rule of the Week publication from San Diego Trolley, Inc. Communicating Changes to Rules When there is a change in safety-related rules, there are a variety of methods available to com- municate a new or modified rule. If the new rule is intended to eliminate a serious safety risk, then a Meet and Greet strategy may be used in addition to a printed notice that is mailed to each affected employee. Meet and Greet involves the supervisor explaining the new rule to each employee on a one-on-one basis. The advantage of this approach is that it provides the employee an opportunity to task questions and the transit agency is certain that each employee knows about and understands the rule change. Another strategy, which may be used in conjunction with Meet and Greet, is having the employee sign that he or she has received and read the new rule. The new rule may be distributed via mail or email. A periodic newsletter may also reinforce the nature and importance of the new rule. % of employees who participated in "meet and greet" % of employees who acknowledge receipt of new rule in writing
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46 Improving Safety-Related Rules Compliance in the Public Transportation Industry Figure 8. Super Vision guidance document for San Diego Trolley, Inc., supervisors.