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is a direct impact. How that employee then spends this salary locally on groceries and housing is a multiplied, indirect impact. The impact of the facility thus expands into the community, state, and country. Economic Development/Business Attraction Freight facilities can be a catalyst for economic development through attracting other suppliers or vendors to form an industry cluster of activity. They may also spur new development or redevelopment of existing properties. The size and timing of economic development/ business attraction effects can vary greatly by facility based on local land use and zoning policies, economic development incentives and marketing, transportation connectivity benefits, and so on. Effects include: Redevelopment Economic and financial gains from redevelopment of existing underutilized land, including additional job creation and increases in property value. New Businesses The economic and financial gain of locating new businesses on previously undeveloped land. Residential Properties Including the addition of new houses and the impacts of increased population. Transportation effects Transportation impacts accrue from changes in the movement of goods and can impact the community and region in a variety of positive and negative ways. These include benefits from modal shifts (and removal of trucks from the roadways), increases or decreases in traffic, and pollution. Mode Choice Mode choice and traffic volume reflect changes in truck, rail, ship, and air volumes due to the selection of transportation mode. The primary impact tends to be to highways as most freight travels by truck for at least a portion of its trip. A facility that allows for lower cost or more efficient mode choice may either reduce truck traffic, or focus truck traffic at the point where modes connect. Traffic The location of the facility will change traffic patterns in the immediate surrounding area. This may result in increased truck traffic to/from the facility depending on highway access, local traffic patterns, and 14 Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials

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access. Facilities that promote the use of modes other than truck may help keep longer distance trips on more efficient and cost-effective modes, thus reducing overall truck VMT (vehicle miles traveled) on local, regional, and national highways. Congestion Congestion on roads, rails, air and sea can cause community conflict as well as delay in goods reaching their destinations. Congestion can also have direct financial impacts as it increases shipping costs and can lead to investment in infrastructure improvements to alleviate delays. Congestion can also have air quality impacts based on idling. Environment, Emissions, and Energy The pollution and energy usage that accompany freight facilities Impacts changes with the distance traveled and/or the modes used for Transportation transport. Changes in fuel consumption, emissions levels, noise and Traffic volumes by mode Direct travel costs vibration are the most common environmental impacts. Supply chain logistics Air Quality Fewer pollutants (NO2, CO, CO2, NOX, SO2, Environment, emissions, and energy particulate matter, volatile organic compounds) are released Safety and security into the atmosphere with fewer vehicle miles traveled, as Economic emissions are a product primarily of mode and distance Construction Direct economic activity at the traveled. Shifts to a more efficient transportation mode (e.g., facility truck to rail via an intermodal terminal, or an increase in the Multiplier effects distance on rail versus truck) also result in a change in emissions. Economic development/business attraction In addition, newer intermodal facilities are often equipped with technology improvements to reduce truck idling, leading Costs to further emissions reductions. Capital Fuel Consumption (Energy Intensity) While not a direct public Infrastructure Operating and Maintenance cost or benefit, shorter trips and less congestion typically result in better fuel efficiency and lower levels of fuel consumption. Energy consumption per ton-mile varies by mode, with air having the highest consumption and maritime the lowest. Better overall fuel efficiency in the network can impact a community's energy profile and have broader, longer term societal benefits. Safety and Security The location and design of freight facilities can also have safety and security effects on the community or region. These include the traffic Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials 15