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conflicts resulting in accidents due to changes in truck VMT, as well as criminal activities around the facility itself. Safety Well-sited and designed facilities can reduce the number of trucks on the road and/or the distance they travel. This can be expected to lead to a reduction in accidents, measured as property damage, injury, and fatalities. The corollary is also true poorly sited facilities can result in an increase in hazardous traffic conditions and conflicts with pedestrian or local auto traffic. Security The value of freight can attract criminal activity, but security measures reduce this activity, thus reducing losses to shippers and receivers and providing a higher level of security in the community around the facility. Other public sector costs As described earlier, the costs of freight facilities are often borne primarily by the private sector owner of freight logistics facilities. However, supporting public infrastructure (roadways, utilities, and public services) represents direct costs to the community. Additionally, it is increasingly common for public-private partnerships to help fund facilities and connecting infrastructure. The three main categories of cost are: Capital Those costs that occur when constructing the facility itself, including design and construction. These costs are typically incurred before the facility is operational. Infrastructure Costs necessary to improve the road or rail network surrounding the facility in order to fully accommodate the increased volume of shipments. Public Services The community and region may also incur additional annual costs for firefighting, public safety, police, public works, and related services as a result of additional freight activity. While all of these measures may not be applicable to every freight facility, all of these costs and benefits should be considered in undertaking an assessment of the economic and transportation effects of freight facilities. 16 Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials