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for exposed animals, which is why this study Steel Pile Driving at the Mad River Bridges, U.S. recommends an RWI of 2. Highway 101, July 2009. March. Prepared by G. D. Exploration of assays to detect the presence of Marty, DVM, Ph.D., Fish Pathology Services, Abbots- specific proteins (biomarkers) in blood offer ford, British Columbia, Canada. the potential for non-lethal assessment of Carlson, T. J., G. E. Johnson, C. M. Woodley, J. R. Skalski, and A. G. Seaburg. 2011. Compliance injury from exposure to impulsive sound and Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock other exposures. Biomarkers used to detect Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans have Improvement Project, 2009/2010. PNNL-20388, been found to be a candidate biomarker to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, detect sub-mortal injury in fish exposed to Washington. decompression and impact. There is a growing Carlson, T. J., and M. A. Weiland. 2007. Dynamic Pile literature that impulsive signals can cause TBI Driving and Pile Driving Underwater Impulsive and that the effects do not show up for some Sound. PNWD-3808, Battelle--Pacific Northwest time post exposure. Thus, biomarkers could be Division, Richland, Washington. an important response assessment tool particu- Carlson, T. J., M. C. Hastings, and A. N. Popper. 2007. larly for fish that are difficult to necropsy be- Update on recommendations for revised interim cause of value (such as adult breeding females), sound exposure criteria for fish during pile driving activities. Available at http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/ handling challenges, or size limitations (larval env/bio/files/ct-arlington_memo_12-21-07.pdf fish or full-grown adult). (February 2011). There have been suggestions that the cumula- Casper, B. M., and D. A. Mann. 2006. Evoked Potential tive effects on fish from the natural pauses that Audiograms of the Nurse Shark (Ginglymostoma cir- occur during pile driving activity result in a ratum) and the Yellow Stingray (Urobatis jamaicen- resetting of the injury accumulations. For sis). Environ. Biol. Fish. 76(1):101110. example, would the effect on fish be the same Chawda, M. N., F. Hildebrand, H. C. Pape, and P. V. from a group of 960 continuous strikes com- Giannoudis. 2004. Predicting outcome after multiple pared to a group of 96 strikes presented 10 trauma: which scoring system? Injury, Int. J. Care times with a defined time separation? It Injured 35:347358. would be useful for mitigation purposes to Dalecki, D., S. Z. Child, and C. H. Raeman. 2002. Lung determine the injury response levels from damage from exposure to low frequency sound. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111:2464. these two paradigms and address whether or Gaspin, J. B. 1975. Experimental investigation of the not natural pauses lead to different injury effects of underwater explosions on swimbladder response levels than continuous activity. fish, 1: 1973 Chesapeake Bay Tests. Naval Surface While it has been predicted that effects of pile Weapons Center Technical Report NSWC/WOL/ driving would decrease as fishes get larger TR 75-58. White Oak Laboratory, Silver Spring, (e.g., Carlson et al., 2007), this could not be Maryland. examined in the results reported here due to Hamernik, R. P., W. Qiu, and B. Davis. 2003. The effects the size of the HICI-FT. Understanding such of the amplitude distribution of equal energy expo- effects would have significant implications sures on noise-induced hearing loss: The kurtosis for setting criteria for effects of sound on fish. metric. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114:386395. Hawkins, A. D., and D. N. MacLennan. 1976. An acoustic tank for hearing studies on fish. In Sound Reception in Fish, A. Schuijf and A. D. Hawkins REFERENCES (eds.), pp. 149169, Elsevier, New York. Au, W. L., and M. Hastings. 2008. Principles of Marine Husum, H., and G. Strada. 2002. Measuring injury sever- Bioacoustics. New York: Springer-Verlag, p. 2090. ity. The ISS as good as the NISS for penetrating California Department of Transportation. 2010a. Effects injuries. Prehosp. Disast. Med. 17:2732. of Pile Driving Sound on Juvenile Steelhead. Pre- Houghton, J. P, J. E. Starkes, J. P. Stutes, M. A. Harvey, pared by ICF Jones & Stokes, Seattle, Washington. J. A. Reyff, and D. E. Erikson. 2010. Acoustic mon- Available at http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/env/bio/files/ itoring of in situ exposures of juvenile coho salmon madriver_cagedfsh.pdf. to pile driving noise at the Port of Anchorage Marine California Department of Transportation. 2010b. Necropsy Terminal redevelopment project, Knik Arm, Alaska. and Histopathology of Steelhead Trout Exposed to In Alaska Marine Science Symposium Book of 23