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A/S, Naerum, Denmark, Model 8103), and digitized by LabVIEW. In addition, Dazzle MovieStar software ( cap- tured digital images of a 45 region inside the HICI- FT during experiments. Digital images allowed the observer an occasional glimpse of a fish if it swam into Figure 1 Juvenile Chinook salmon used in this study. the angle of view. (Note these observations were pri- Note: caudal fin clipped for identification purposes. marily to check on fish survival and cannot be used for behavioral studies.) Fish Maintenance The HICI-FT chamber (Figures 2 and 3) was a circular tube 0.45 m long with a 0.25-m internal Fish were kept in a dedicated aquarium room diameter and 3.81-cm-thick stainless steel walls of the laboratory in the Biology/Psychology build- filled with water. At either end of the tube was a ing at the University of Maryland. This room met rigid lightweight circular piston held by a membra- all federal standards for animal care. The care and nous seal in the center of the steel end cap. Each pis- maintenance of the room, as well as the conduct of ton was connected to a linear electrodynamic motor all experiments described in this report, were done (moving coil shaker) anchored to the end caps. The under protocols reviewed and approved by the Insti- motors of the shakers were driven separately with tutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) signals appropriate to create the desired pressure and of the University of Maryland (see Appendix D). velocity fields within the tube for the sound expo- Fish were held under authority of the Maryland sure of the fish. Department of Natural Resources (Natural Resources Articles 4-602 and 4-11A-02). Details of fish mainte- nance are provided in Appendix F which can be found Sounds online at The HICI-FT chamber was designed to produce Display.asp?Project ID=763. propagating plane waves with a peak sound pressure level (SPL) of at least 215 dB re 1 Pa. The HICI- Sound Exposure Apparatus FT was able to generate pressure and particle motion and Methods levels that were very similar to those produced by pile driving activity. Sound exposure was conducted in a system The pile driving signals used in this study were called the High Intensity Controlled Impedance analogues of field recordings of both pressure and Fluid-filled wave Tube (HICI-FT). The HICI-FT is particle motion taken at a range of 10 m from a steel a specially designed wave tube that used large shak- shell pile driven using a diesel hammer at the Eagle ers to produce sounds that accurately reproduce Harbor Maintenance Facility (MacGillivray and actual pile driving sounds. It enabled presentation of Racca, 2005). The actual sound exposure paradigms actual pile driving sounds in the laboratory and used in the experiments described here were designed allowed for control of the number, duration, and to mimic actual pile driving activities. Thus, the other aspects of the pile driving sounds. Thus, it was experimental characteristics of each sound exposure possible to present stimuli at different cumulative matched real-life activity, such as the time and sound levels, single-strike levels, and total number frequency domain characteristics of each pile strike, of strikes, using eight different pile driving signals. inter-strike-interval, and number of strikes. Essentially, the HICI-FT enabled the investigators The signals used in the experiments consisted of to provide the first quantified data on effects of pile eight different pile driving strikes, which were nor- driving signals on fish physiology. Details of the malized to the same SEL and compiled into a single design, operation, and control of the HICI-FT are file that contained 12 repetitions of each of the eight provided in Appendix G. signals, for a total of 96 strikes. MATLAB (Math- Sound presentation was controlled using Lab- Works, Inc., Natick, Massachusetts) was used each VIEW (National Instruments Corporation, Austin, day to generate a randomization of the 96-strike Texas). In the HICI-FT, the presented stimuli were file. This file then was used by LabVIEW for the day captured during experiments with a hydrophone and repeated 10 times for a 960-strike presentation (Brel & Kjr Sound & Vibration Measurement or 20 times for a 1,920-strike presentation. Therefore, 8