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10. Planning and Developing Your Airport general Key Po i nt When developing the physical elements of your airport, it is important to have a thoughtful, comprehensive, and well- coordinated plan to guide growth aligned with the airport's vision. An ALP is the document that depicts your airport's 20-year plan for growth. The ALP depicts the existing and proposed airport land uses and infrastructure and is sometimes prepared as part of an airport master planning process. Airport sponsors also prepare an airport capital improvement plan (ACIP) that outlines the cost, funding, and timing for each capital item. The ACIP is often in a spreadsheet format, while the ALP shows the proposed development in a graphic/drawing format. The FAA requires an airport sponsor to maintain a current ALP as a condition to receiving federal grant assistance. The FAA and state funding agencies also require submission of an annual ACIP, typically covering the next five years of projects. The ACIP is updated at least T h e Ai r p o r t annually, while the ALP is updated as frequently as active development is being undertaken, but typically every five years. D i s cu s s i on The typical process for airport development is to plan the project or development, assess its potential environmental impacts, design the project, and then construct it. Development of the ACIP normally parallels this process. As new or more detailed information is available, the funding plan may change. Airport Planning Environmental Project Project Design Impact Review Construction F I NAN C I AL Airpor t Master Plans Some airport owners prepare or update a comprehensive airport master plan with significant public and community involvement. The primary elements of an airport master plan include: · inventory of existing facilities; · consideration of alternatives; · development of 20 year forecast of aviation · overview of environmental impacts; activity; · analysis of financial feasibility; · identification of facility requirements to meet · preparation of an ALP, showing the 20-year anticipated aviation activity; rules proposed development. Master plans also consider state or regional system plans which assist with understanding how the airport fits in a larger region or area, both now and in the future. Environmental Project Airport Planning Project Design Impact Review Construction 22
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Airpor t Layout Plans GENERAL An ALP is important because it serves as: · A guide to what, where, and when certain facilities should go on an airport; · A blueprint for airport land use and development in accordance with FAA criteria; · A public record of future and present aeronautical requirements; · A tool to facilitate discussions with the FAA about Airport Improvement Program grant funds. The ALP shows runways, taxiways, aprons, buildings, navigation aids, pertinent safety clearances, and anticipated timing for each proposed facility. While use of the term "ALP" typically refers to the primary drawing sheet, the ALP actually consists of an entire set of drawings which includes: · Airport Layout Plan Drawing -- existing and proposed facilities (the primary drawing); · Terminal Area Plan -- enlarged view of terminals, aprons, hangars, and auto access/parking; THE AIRPORT · Airport Airspace Plan -- protected "imaginary" surfaces in airspace surrounding the airport; · Land Use Map -- existing and future land use on and around airport property; and · Airport Property Map -- airport property boundary, inner parcels, and adjacent properties. Includes acquisition history, existing and proposed easements, and future land acquisition. Airport Layout Plan Terminal Area Plan When FAA approves an ALP it is concurring with the airport owner's Airport Layout Plan Terminal Area Plan plan for airport development. The plan generally meets FAA geometric design criteria; however, this does not mean FAA concurs with the funding of proposed development. The FAA also considers the overall utility and FINANCIAL efficiency of the proposed layout when reviewing the ALP. The airport land will be effectively used to meet aeronautical demand and revenue needs, and the existing/proposed Airport Airspace Plan airfield is of sufficient capacity and an Airport Land Use Plan efficient layout. Airport Airspace Plan Airport Land Use Plan The airport sponsor must develop, operate, and maintain the airport in accordance with the latest approved ALP. FAA or state approval of an ALP is not a commitment that they will fund the development shown on the ALP. Also, they will often "conditionally" approve an ALP pending final completion of environmental documents and RULES issuance of a finding of no significant environmental impact. 23
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Airpor t Capital Improvement Plan (ACIP) general The ACIP is the primary tool for systematically identifying, prioritizing, and assigning funds to support development and capital needs for an airport. The FAA relies on the ACIP to serve as the basis for the distribution of limited grant funds under the AIP. A sponsor's ACIP represents their five-year program for planning and development at their airport. An ACIP is important because it serves as: · A guide for FAA, state, airport, and other agencies to evaluate funding needs; · A resource for FAA when evaluating an airport's needs versus those of an entire region; · A tool for FAA and the state to effectively plan and program funding over the long term; · A necessary instrument for applying for FAA and most state grant funds. For more discussion about types of actual funding, see Issue Paper #14 Financial: Funding Capital Improvements. T h e Ai r p o r t Environmental Impac ts Prior to undertaking a project, the airport is responsible for ensuring that it is in compliance with applicable environmental laws, regulations, and processes. FAA requirements for addressing environmental impacts are based on federal law and regulations and require one of three types of documentation of a project's environmental impacts and mitigation, including: 1. Categorical exclusion (example project: apron overlay); 2. Environmental assessment (example project: runway extension at a general aviation airport); and 3. Environmental impact statement (example project: new air carrier runway at a large hub airport). Environmental Paper FAA prescribes in detail how to prepare these documents. A project's impact is normally examined relative to up to sixteen environmental impact categories, including: F I NAN C I AL · air quality, · noise, · hazardous materials, · wetlands, · fish and wildlife, · prime farmland, and · historical, architectural, cultural significance. In addition, there may be unique local, state, and regional environmental review requirements. The environmental approval process can take much longer than anticipated because of these many impact categories, as well as the required coordination with local, state, and rules federal agencies, and public involvement. 24
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Projec t Design and Construc tion GENERAL Assuming projects are consistent with an approved ALP and have environmental approval and funding for construction is Design fairly certain, sponsors normally proceed with preparation of detailed design documents and project construction. There are specific federal requirements for how these services are procured (see Issue Paper # 16 Financial: Purchasing Goods and Safety Construction Services for Your Airport). The design process typically includes selection of a consultant, Progress a predesign conference, design Monitoring review meetings with the airport owner and key airport stakeholders, an engineer's report, and preparation THE AIRPORT of construction plans and specifications. The construction phase includes bidding, contract award, actual construction, and project closeout. Two important requirements during construction are safety and quality control. Airport safety is addressed through a "safety during construction" plan that is part of the contract documents. This plan ensures that contractor personnel and equipment stay away from active runways and taxiways. Quality control of the construction is Design normally addressed through appropriate resident inspection and testing of construction materials. For example, pavement materials and earthwork are tested to ensure what is actually placed meets specifications. There is also a final inspection at the completion of the project where airport, state, and federal officials confirm the project is complete and associated grants can be administratively closed. Safety Construction Progress FINANCIAL App l i c at i o n Monitoring Become familiar with the airport's vision and its ALP. Keep your ACIP real. It should not be a wish-list, but rather a realistic, achievable plan based on demonstrated need. Embrace a goal to always meet safety standards when developing the airport. Be a responsible steward of the environment. RULES 25