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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-1 Appendix D Sustainability Performance Measure Examples This appendix provides a set of examples in practice for a selected set of performance measures from the compendium. For each goal, one measure per focus area has been illustrated by an example of a similar measure in use by a transportation agency. Many of the measures are not exact duplicates but retain the same value or intention. In some cases the agency examples are more specific than those in the compendium. In a handful of cases the focus areas are combined and one measure is used due to the similarities in the compendium. In addition to the actual measure that is included, the documents these measures come from (website links are provided) are valuable resources for agencies building a sustainability performance measures program. The range of documents listed as references also provides an indication of the types of departments, programs, and policies that incorporate measures that can be used for sustainability measurement. Goal 1: Provide a Safe Transportation System for Users and the General Public Focus area: Planning Objective: Reduce the severity of crashes Measure: Change in the number and severity of crashes Agency: Minnesota DOT (MnDOT) Document/website: Minnesota Statewide Transportation Policy Plan http://www.dot.state.mn.us/planning/stateplan/Final%20Plan%20Documents/Policy%20Plan/PD F/AppendixD.pdf Agency example measure: Annual number of severe or incapacitating injuries on all Minnesota roads Methodology: A severe or incapacitating injury, classified as a Type A injury in crash reports, is defined as an injury (other than fatal) that prevents the injured person from walking, driving, or normally continuing the activities he or she was capable of performing before the injury occurred. Hospitalization is usually required. This measure tracks the annual total number of severe incapacitating injuries on all state and local roads. Data source: Department of Public Safety Office of Traffic Safety's crash data Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, statewide Background: The Minnesota Statewide Transportation Policy Plan identifies 10 major policy areas. This measure supports the first policy area, traveler safety. This policy's goal is to "reduce the number of fatalities and serious injuries for all travel modes." MnDOT has a Toward Zero Deaths initiative as an overall target for their safety goal. While that is the focus, severe injury crashes are also of great concern.

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D-2 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Focus area: Programming Objective: Prioritized projects with explicit safety considerations Measure: Change in number of programmed projects with highest reduction in crashes out of all alternatives Agency: Arizona DOT (ADOT) Document/website: Arizona Strategic Highway Safety Plan http://www.azdot.gov/highways/traffic/TSS/SHSP/AZ_Strategic_Highway_Safety_Plan.pdf Agency example measure: Number of signalized intersections converted to roundabouts Methodology: This measure is based on data showing the reduction in crashes for intersections converted from signals to roundabouts. The measure is a calculation of the number of projects included in the funded program. Data source: Arizona DOT Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, statewide Background: The Arizona Strategic Highway Safety Plan underlies the state's safety vision: "Zero fatalities on Arizona roads; your life depends on it," or the Every One Counts vision. The state's safety goal is to reduce the number of fatalities by 12%. To achieve this goal, the state selected six emphasis areas: 1. Restraint usage, 2. Speeding, 3. Young drivers, 4. Impaired driving, 5. Roadway/roadside (lane departure and intersections), and 6. Data improvement.

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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-3 Focus area: Project development Objective: Develop project with explicit safety considerations Measure: Selected project design has highest reduction out of all alternatives Agency: ADOT Document/website: Comprehensive Approach to Wildlife Protection on State Route 260 http://environment.fhwa.dot.gov/ecosystems/eei/az.asp Agency example measure: Use of engineering measures (wildlife-proof fencing, escape ramps, and one-way gates) to keep elk (and other animals) off the highway Methodology: ADOT worked in partnership with the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD) to build bridges and other barriers that will enable elk and other animals to safely cross under the highway (or contain them) to reach critical watering sites and other habitat vital to their survival. In a pilot study, AGFD fitted 36 elk with GPS collars to track their movement along the highways and determine seasonal movements. The research has shown that the animals are using the underpasses. Data sources: Arizona DOT and AGFD Analysis scale: Roadway, local Background: This project started as part of a road-widening project from a two-lane route to a four-lane divided highway. Focus areas: Construction and maintenance Objective: Reduce crash risk in work zones Measure: Change in number of crashes per time unit within a particular work zone Agency: Kentucky Transportation Center Document/website: Improve Safety of Workers During Highway Construction and Maintenance http://www.ktc.uky.edu/Reports/KTC_07_16_SPR_323_05_1F.pdf Agency example measure: Use of a range of engineering and operations measures to reduce the number of accidents in work zones Methodology: This study collected survey data from construction and maintenance field workers, managers, and engineers. The data highlighted the four most significant safety improvements needed in the state. Data source: Kentucky Transportation Center Analysis scale: Statewide

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D-4 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Background: The objective of this study was to identify best safety practices for workers on highway construction and maintenance projects. Although the study does not specifically develop performance measures, it does recommend a series of actions that state DOTs can take to improve safety, which could easily be translated into performance measures. Focus area: System operations Objective: Reduce the crash risk of the traveling public using transit Measure: Number of fatal and disabling injuries sustained by transit users as a portion of 100 million passenger miles traveled or of 100,000 riders Agency: King County Metro Transit, Washington Document/website: 2009 Annual Management Report http://metro.kingcounty.gov/am/reports/2009/2009-QMRyearend.pdf Agency example measure: Accidents per million miles Methodology: King County Metro Transit records the number of vehicle and passenger accidents each year. They classify accidents as preventable and unpreventable. Data source: King County Metro Transit Analysis scale: Service area Background: The annual report provides information and the transit agency's operating and financial statistics. Goal 2: Provide a Transportation System That Offers Accessibility That Allows People to Fulfill at Least Their Basic Needs Focus area: Planning Objective: Ensure accessibility to jobs Measure: Change in the number of jobs within reasonable travel time (by mode) for region's population Agency: Metropolitan Transportation Commission, California Document/website: Transportation 2030 Equity Analysis Report http://www.mtc.ca.gov/planning/2030_plan/downloads/EJ/T2030EquityAnalysisReport.pdf Agency example measure: Number of jobs accessible by auto and transit within 15, 30, and 45 minutes Methodology: This evaluation factor measures the number of jobs accessible by auto and transit for each of the alternatives for communities of concern and the remainder of the Bay

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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-5 Area. The analysis measures jobs accessible by both modes within 15, 30, and 45 minutes. The forecasts include regional population projections for 2030 as well as job growth projected for 2030. For this measure, job accessibility is considered representative of other key destinations such as hospitals, retail, government centers, and so forth. Data source: Metropolitan Transportation Commission Analysis scale: Regional Background: This measure is included in the Metropolitan Transportation Commission's 2030 Equity Analysis Report. The report measures the benefits and burdens associated with the proposed transportation projects in the Transportation 2030 plan to ensure that minority and low- income communities receive equitable benefits without shouldering a disproportionate share of the burdens. Focus area: Programming Objective: Program projects that increase access to essential destinations Measure: Change in travel time (by mode) to schools, health services, grocery stores, civic and public spaces, and recreation due to project Agency: Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) Document/website: Driven by Excellence: A Report on Transportation Performance Management at MDOT http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdot/MDOT_DrivenExcellenceReport_323894_7.pdf Agency example measure: Number of Michigan counties that provide some form of local bus service Methodology: MDOT tracks the number of counties (out of 83) that offer some level of bus transit service to residents. Data source: MDOT Analysis scale: County, state Background: MDOT produced this report to provide its customers with an overview of how the transportation system in the state is functioning. The measures included in the report are linked to the four goal areas of the Michigan Transportation Plan: stewardship, safety and security, system improvement, and efficient and effective operation. MDOT views transit service as an important lower-cost transportation service and a critical service to maintain for its residents. Currently there is transit service in all 83 counties, but service is very limited in some counties. MDOT's goal is protect the existing system, although it also recognizes the gaps that exist and could be improved.

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D-6 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Focus area: Project development Objective: Develop projects that increase access to essential destinations Measure: Change in travel time (by mode) to schools, health services, grocery stores, civic and public spaces, and recreation due to selected project alternative Agency: Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) Document/website: Vision 2040 http://www.psrc.org/assets/366/FullReport.pdf Agency example measure: Travel mode splits, travel times, and delay by county and major corridor, and by regional geography (including designated centers) Methodology: PSRC uses a range of data to calculate mode splits, travel times, and delay in key travel areas. Data sources: U.S. Census, PSRC Household Travel Survey, Washington State Department of Transportation Analysis scale: County, corridor, regional geography, designated centers Background: Vision 2040 was developed to create a shared strategy for moving the central Puget Sound region toward a sustainable future. Central to the document and policies is the concept of "People, Places, Prosperity." Focus area: Construction and maintenance Objective: Reduce delay to commuters due to construction or maintenance activities Measure: Change in travel time delay for commuters due to construction or maintenance activities Agency: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse Document/website: Work Zone Safety Performance Measures Guidance Booklet http://www.workzonesafety.org/fhwa_wz_grant/atssa/atssa_wz_performance_measures Agency example measure: Travel time/delay during construction or maintenance Methodology: Relies on good baseline information; data are collected on commute days (Monday through Friday, not including holidays). Delay value can be scaled based on project/traffic characteristics. Data source: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse Analysis scale: Project, local, county, corridor

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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-7 Background: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse is dedicated to providing the transportation construction industry and the general public with comprehensive information to improve motorist, worker, and pedestrian safety in work zones. Focus Area: System operations Objective: Improve travel time reliability to jobs and other essential destinations through operational improvements Measure: Change in the reliability of travel time per mode per destination type Agency: Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Document/website: 2010 Congestion Report http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Accountability/Congestion/2010.htm Agency example measure: Range of percentiles reliability analysis Methodology: WSDOT uses the reliable travel time measure using multiple percentile thresholds as part of their travel time analysis for 38 high-demand Puget Sound commute routes. Reliability percentile analysis looks at travel times at the 50th percentile (median), 80th percentile, 90th percentile, and 95th percentile values. The 95th percentile reliability score is the duration that gets drivers to their destination on time 95% of the time. Data source: WSDOT collects real-time data for 52 commute routes in the Puget Sound region, two commute routes in Spokane, and for other highways throughout the State. Analysis scale: Corridor, local, regional, statewide Background: WSDOT produces an annual analysis of travel statewide with an emphasis on major commute routes in the more densely populated areas of the state. The 2010 Congestion Report provides WSDOT with an evaluation of the success of their congestion relief projects and strategies. Goal 3: Provide Options That Allow Affordable and Equitable Transportation Options for All Sections of Society Focus area: Planning Objective: Ensure accessibility to jobs and essential destinations for all communities Measure: Relative change in the level of access for disadvantaged populations to jobs, schools, health services, grocery stores, civic and public spaces, and recreation Agency: Metropolitan Transportation Commission, California Document/website: Transportation 2030 Equity Analysis Report http://www.mtc.ca.gov/planning/2030_plan/downloads/EJ/T2030EquityAnalysisReport.pdf Agency example measure: Access and travel time to essential destinations by auto and transit

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D-8 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Methodology: This evaluation factor measures the travel time to essential destinations by auto and transit for communities of concern and the remainder of the Bay Area. Essential destinations include schools, food stores, health services, and local services (e.g., banks and post offices). The Transportation 2030 investment alternatives are compared against this measure. Data source: Metropolitan Transportation Commission Analysis scale: Regional Background: This measure is included in the Metropolitan Transportation Commission's 2030 Equity Analysis Report. The report measures the benefits and burdens associated with the proposed transportation projects in the Transportation 2030 plan to ensure that minority and low- income communities receive equitable benefits without shouldering a disproportionate share of the burdens. Focus area: Programming Objective: Program transportation projects that improve transportation infrastructure equitably Measure: Change in ratio of transportation disadvantaged to non-disadvantaged population benefitting from program Agency: Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) Document/website: 2008 Regional Transportation Plan Environmental Justice Report http://www.scag.ca.gov/rtp2008/pdfs/finalrtp/reports/fEnvironmentalJustice.pdf Agency example measure: Distribution of plan expenditures Methodology: SCAG reports expenditure distribution by estimating the share of total regional transportation plan expenditures allocated to each category of household income by totaling expenditures on each mode and allocating them to each group's level of use. Data sources: U.S. Census, American Housing Survey, National Household Travel Survey Analysis scale: Regional Background: This measure is included in SCAG's Environmental Justice Report. The purpose of the analysis is to ensure that the important principles of environmental justice are considered and integrated into the transportation planning process. Focus area: Project development Objective: Develop transportation projects that improve transportation infrastructure equitably Measure: Ratio of disadvantaged to non-disadvantaged population experiencing negative impacts of transportation program (e.g., noise, air quality, neighborhood fragmentation)

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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-9 Agency: Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission Document/website: Environmental Justice Technical Analysis http://www.morpc.org/pdf/CapitalWays%20EJ% 20Appendix%20May%202008.pdf Agency example measure: Displacement from projects Methodology: During the preparation of the transportation plan, all projects are qualitatively assessed as to the number of displacements resulting from the project. MORPC developed four categories--none, low, moderate, and high--to classify each project. Data source: MORPC Analysis scale: Regional Background: This measure is included in MORPC's Environmental Justice Technical Analysis. The purpose of the analysis is to ensure that the important principles of environmental justice are considered and integrated into the transportation planning process. Focus area: Construction and maintenance Objective: Reduce delay due to construction or maintenance activities equitably Measure: Ratio of disadvantaged to non-disadvantaged system users experiencing delay due to construction or maintenance activities Agency: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse Document/website: Work Zone Safety Performance Measures Guidance Booklet http://www.workzonesafety.org/fhwa_wz_grant/atssa/atssa_wz_performance_measures Agency example measure: Travel time/delay during construction or maintenance Methodology: Relies on good baseline information; data are collected on commute days (Monday through Friday, not including holidays). Delay value can be scaled based on project/traffic characteristics. This measure can be calculated for disadvantaged and non- disadvantaged groups to understand the implications for sections of society. Data source: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse Analysis scale: Project, local, county, corridor Background: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse is dedicated to providing the transportation construction industry and the general public with comprehensive information to improve motorist, worker, and pedestrian safety in work zones.

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D-10 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Focus area: System operations Objective: Ensure that transportation costs do not disproportionately affect low-income users Measure: Change in incidence of travel costs by income group due to operational improvements Agency: SCAG Document/website: 2008 Regional Transportation Plan Environmental Justice Report http://www.scag.ca.gov/rtp2008/pdfs/finalrtp/reports/fEnvironmentalJustice.pdf Agency example measure: Taxes paid Methodology: SCAG reports the amount of taxes (sales, gasoline, and income) to determine whether lower income groups are paying an amount proportional to the transportation services they are using. Data source: SCAG Analysis scale: Regional Background: This measure is included in SCAG's Environmental Justice Report. This measure is compared to the share of transit system usage and transit travel time savings by income groups to determine the benefits they are receiving compared to their tax burden. As transit operations are improved, this relationship changes. The purpose of the analysis is to ensure that the important principles of environmental justice are considered and integrated into the transportation planning process. Goal 4: Ensure That the Transportation System's Functionality and Efficiency Are Maintained and Enhanced Focus area: Planning Objective: Ensure that transportation options are efficient for all users Measure: Change in travel time index by mode Agency: Texas Transportation Institute Document/website: Annual Urban Mobility Report http://mobility.tamu.edu/ Agency example measure: Travel time index calculated as the ratio of travel time in the peak period to travel time in free flow

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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-11 Methodology: A measure of congestion that focuses on each trip and each mile of travel. It is calculated as the ratio of travel time in the peak period to travel in free flow. A value of 1.30 indicates that a 20-minute free-flow trip takes 25 minutes in the peak. Data source(s): The Texas Transportation Institute produces this annual report of congestion on freeways and major streets in 101 cities in the United States. Analysis scale: Local, regional Background: This report is an excellent resource for the agencies included in the analysis areas. Focus area: Programming Objective: Program projects designed to maintain or achieve a state of good repair for the existing transportation system Measure: Change in existing lane/track/sidewalk miles in a state of good repair due to program Agency: MDOT Document/website: Driven by Excellence: A Report on Transportation Performance Management at MDOT http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdot/MDOT_DrivenExcellenceReport_323894_7.pdf Agency example measure: 90% of trunk-line pavement rated in fair or better condition Methodology: MDOT uses a measure called remaining service life (RSL), which estimates the remaining years until a pavement's most cost-effective treatment is either reconstruction or major rehabilitation. Pavements with an RSL of two years or less are considered to be in poor condition. Data source: MDOT asset management Analysis scale: Local, regional, state Background: MDOT produced this report to provide its customers with an overview of how the transportation system in the state is functioning. The measures included in the report are linked to the four goal areas of the Michigan Transportation Plan: stewardship, safety and security, system improvement, and efficient and effective operation.

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D-26 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies http://www.tac- atc.ca/english/resourcecentre/readingroom/conference/conf2006/docs/s007/bremner.pdf Agency example measure: Utilize an accounting and management plan for road construction waste materials, and minimize the amount of construction-related waste destined for landfill Methodology: Establishing a formal process for removing and recycling infrastructure waste will reduce the amount of materials being sent to the landfill. Reducing waste will not only reduce needed landfill space but will be better for the environment, reduce dump truck trips (and exhaust), and will have an overall cost savings for the project. Data source(s): The information in this case study comes from the report produced by Bremner and the City of Vancouver (2006). Analysis scale: Roadway, local Background: In 2005, the City of Vancouver created a new engineering branch in their governmental agency strictly for management of infrastructure waste, such as waste generated from roadway, water, and sewer development. The estimated amount of this infrastructure waste exceeded 400,000 metric tons (about 441,000 tons) annually. This waste had previously been disposed of in the Vancouver landfill. After this initiative, 100% of annual hot-mix asphalt milling waste is now recycled; 100% of annual concrete curb, sidewalk, and roadway slab material is now recycled; stockpiles of soil, asphalt, and concrete are now available for more projects after reprocessing, and extraction of new aggregate is often avoided. Focus area: Construction Objective: Increase the percentage of waste diverted (from landfill) during construction Measure: Change in the amount of construction waste diverted by type, weight and/or volume Agency: Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Document/website: TxDOT Waste Tracking System http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/00julaug/recyctx.cfm Agency example measure: Utilize an accounting and management plan for road construction waste materials, and minimize the amount of construction-related waste destined for landfill Methodology: Establish, implement, and maintain a formal construction and demolition waste management plan (CWMP) during roadway construction. Construction and demolition waste constitutes any material that must be hauled off-site for disposal or reprocessing, or if disposed (stockpiled) within the ROW is not intended for use as a structural element. Data source(s): TxDOT and Construction Materials Recycling Association Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, and statewide

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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-27 Background: TxDOT's Waste Tracking System tracks the volume of materials used on a project, their associated costs, and environmental benefits. In addition, the system considers life- cycle costs of materials as well as cost incentives for contractors to implement a waste management plan. In the previous two years the program saved over 1.8 million tons of virgin aggregate by incorporating a variety of pavement recycling options into the general agency practice. Focus area: Maintenance Objective: Increase the percentage of waste diverted (from landfill) during maintenance Measure: Change in the percentage of maintenance projects with a recycling plan or waste diversion goal Agency: NYSDOT Document/website: GreenLITES https://www.nysdot.gov/programs/greenlites/operations-cert Agency example measure: Change the amount of waste that is created during operations of roadway facilities Methodology: Increase sustainability measures in transportation maintenance statewide in all aspects of their work. This includes maintenance work on roadways that need construction maintenance as well as in-office recycling. Data source(s): GreenLITES Analysis scale: Roadway, statewide Background: In 2009, GreenLITES' Operations Division was launched to increase sustainability in all aspects of maintenance operations for transportation. The Operations Division has devised and incorporated more than 100 tasks into its planning process. These tasks are then chosen based on sustainability trade-offs and tracked for progress. Many of these GreenLITES tasks include recycling or waste diversion--for example, office waste recycling and reuse, garage waste minimization and recycling, implementing a zero waste strategy, pavement in-place recycling, recycled asphalt paving, concrete recycling, fluorescent lightbulb recycling, and recycled materials for erosion/sediment control. Focus area: System operations Objective: Reduce litter Measure: Change in the quantity of total litter collected annually (weight, volume, etc.) Agency: New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT) Document/website: NMDOT Litter Control Plan http://nmshtd.state.nm.us/upload/images/GTG/Q3_07/DOT_Litter_Control_Program.pdf

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D-28 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency example measure: Prevent pollution and maintain aesthetic quality of road and bridge networks through cleaning and litter removal Methodology: To measure their efforts, NMDOT collects the following data and reports them on a quarterly and annual basis: Number of special litter events, Number of volunteers, Tons of trash removed, Number of highway miles cleaned, and Number of dollars allocated to litter removal. Data source(s): NMDOT data collection Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, and statewide Background: In recognition of a worsening litter presence on New Mexico highways as well as a realization of the aesthetic benefits of a clean and safe roadway, NMDOT began a litter control program. NMDOT tracks performance of the litter control program, including number of cleaning events, tonnage of collected litter, involved volunteers, and money spent. Sources of cleanup include NMDOT maintenance crews, volunteer efforts (through the Adopt-A-Highway program), and inmate labor. NMDOT also works with other agencies (e.g., Keep New Mexico Beautiful) to meet department goals and promote a litter-free environment. Goal 10: Reduce the Us e of Nonren ewable Resources and Promote th e Use of Renewable Replacem ents Focus area: Planning Objective: Purchase sustainable materials as a priority Measure: Existence of a purchasing plan that establishes priority for sustainable materials Agency: Seattle DOT Document/website: Seattle's Sustainability Purchasing Plan http://www.cityofseattle.net/environment/purchasing.htm Agency example measure: Promoting the use of environmentally preferable products in the city's acquisition of goods and services Methodology: Sustainable purchasing demonstrates the commitment to buying goods, materials, services, and capital improvements in a manner that reflects fiscal responsibility, social equity, community, and environmental stewardship values. This measure tracks the amount of goods and services purchased that are environmentally preferable.

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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-29 Data source(s): The Department of Executive Administration and Office of Sustainability and Environment produce an annual summary of the city's environmentally responsible/sustainable purchasing actions. Analysis scale: All city departments and offices that make purchases of goods and services or that contract with others to make purchases Background: The goal is to bring together policies, communication tools, process improvements, standards, and reporting mechanisms to help align purchasing practices with the city's values and incorporate these into a sustainable purchasing program. The three values that the city identified are environmental factors including life-cycle assessments, social equity factors, and fiscal factors. The city will purchase and use materials, products, and services that are fiscally responsible, reduce resource consumption and waste, promote opportunities to lesser- advantaged segments of the community, perform adequately, and promote human health and well-being. Focus area: Programming Objective: Use renewable energy to provide project power Measure: Change in percentage of renewable energy, in kWh, created in relation to project energy requirements due to a program Agency: Oregon Department of Energy Document/website: A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) for Oregon http://www.oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/RPS_home.shtml Agency example measure: Reduce the consumption of fossil fuels during operation and maintenance of facilities Methodology: Have a documented plan that outlines how renewable energy will be procured for operations and maintenance of roadway facilities. This includes maintaining an electricity monitoring system for operations and maintenance that tracks electricity usage for highway facilities. Data source(s): The Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System certifies the Renewable Energy Certificates (http://www.wregis.org/). Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, and statewide Background: Oregon's current RPS requires the largest utilities in Oregon to provide 25% of their sales of electricity from renewable sources of energy by 2025. Smaller utilities have similar obligations but at a smaller percentage of sales.

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D-30 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Focus area: Project development Objective: Use renewable energy to provide project power Measure: Change in percentage of renewable energy, in kWh, created in relation to project energy requirements in a project Agency: ODOT Document/website: Oregon Solar Highway http://www.oregonsolarhighway.com Agency example measure: Reduce the consumption of fossil fuels during operation of highway illumination Methodology: Compute the energy requirements for all electrified components on the project. Provide operational energy for the project's electrified components using autonomous, on-site, renewable energy sources. Data source(s): Portland General Electric Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, and statewide Background: In December 2008, ODOT partnered with Portland General Electric to form and implement the Oregon Solar Highway Initiative and build the first solar project in a public ROW in the United States. A 104-kW ground-mounted solar array was installed at the Corridor of the Future interchange of I-5 and I-205. The solar panels supply approximately one-third of the energy needed to illuminate the project. Over the lifetime of the project, it is expected to save 2,900 tons of CO2 emissions. Focus area: Construction Objective: Use biofuel for non-road maintenance equipment Measure: Percentage of machine hours or gallons of biofuel used during construction Companies: Microsoft and Turner Construction Document/website: Constructing a Cleaner Work Environment, Biodiesel Magazine http://biodieselmagazine.com/articles/1798/constructing-a-cleaner-work-environment Agency example measure: Reduce the overall consumption of fossil fuels by non-road construction equipment. Methodology: Reduce the fossil fuel requirements of non-road construction equipment by using biofuel or biofuel blends as a replacement for fossil fuel.

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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-31 Data source(s): Turner Construction and the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries both collected air quality data. Analysis scale: Project specific Background: B99, a 99% proportion of biodiesel to conventional fuel, was used during the construction of the Microsoft Windows Live Columbia One Data Center in Quincy, Washington, to fuel equipment operated by subcontractors hired by Turner Construction Company. Discussions with the safety manager assigned to the project reveal that the reason behind the switch to biodiesel for the on-site construction equipment was to provide a remedy for the noxious diesel fumes that were emitted by the construction equipment. Air quality readings were reduced to 24 ppm CO at the exhaust of the concrete pump trucks, which is significantly less than the air quality regulation of 4045 ppm. Focus area: Maintenance Objective: Use biofuel for non-road maintenance equipment Measure: Percentage of machine hours or gallons of biofuel used during maintenance Agency: Tennessee Department of Transportation (TDOT) Document/website: www.tennessee.gov/tdot Agency example measure: Reduce the overall consumption of fossil fuels by maintenance vehicles Methodology: Reduce the fossil fuel requirements of fleet and maintenance vehicles by using biofuel or biofuel blends as a replacement for fossil fuel. Biodiesel is made from renewable sources such as soybean oil, burns cleaner than traditional diesel, and requires little or no engine modifications. In addition, it also supports the farmers who grow the materials used. Data source(s): www.tennessee.gov/tdot Analysis scale: TDOT Maintenance Operations Background: TDOT has begun using B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel fuel) to fuel TDOT maintenance and fleet vehicles, including heavy-duty dump trucks and large pieces of equipment such as bulldozers and backhoes. TDOT has also installed B20 pumps at each of the regional offices for use in these vehicles. Focus area: System operations Objective: Purchase green energy Measure: Change in the amount and percentage of green energy purchased Agency: Hawaii Department of Transportation (HDOT) Document/website: http://www.marketwire.com/press-release/Hawaii-State-Department- Transportation-Purchase-Clean-Solar-Energy-From-Hoku-Solar-NASDAQ-HOKU-906483.htm

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D-32 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency example measure: Purchasing renewable solar energy for operations and maintenance of roadway facilities Methodology: Procuring renewable energy for the operations and/or maintenance of transportation facilities. Renewable energy will reduce the DOT's carbon footprint and emissions. The goal of this measure is to reduce the amount of fossil fuels that would alternatively be imported. Data source(s): HDOT Analysis scale: Statewide DOT facilities Background: Hawaii's Clean Energy Initiative has the goal that by year 2030, 70% of Hawaii's energy is to come from clean sources. To reduce the state's dependency on imported fossil fuels, HDOT is currently purchasing solar electricity generated by Hoku Solar. This solar electricity comes from the photovoltaic (PV) power that is generated at several of HDOT's facilities located across the state, including airports and administration buildings. It is expected that the PV systems will generate 1.2 million kWh of clean, solar energy and will offset 12,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. Goal 11: Reduce Transportation-Related Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases Focus area: Planning Objective: Increase street connectivity Measure: Change in street connectivity index Agency: Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) Document/website: Secondary Street Acceptance Requirements (SSAR) http://www.virginiadot.org/projects/ssar/ Agency example measure: Increasing roadway connectivity will reduce the amount of pollutant emissions created from vehicles. Methodology: Roadway connectivity involves a system of streets and routes and how the area is connected within the street system. Better connected streets make it easier to get from place to place within a community and provide several routes to do so. Increasing connectivity will reduce the amount of travel miles for vehicles, which will in turn reduce the related emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. This measure will increase the amount of connectivity for new developments. Data source(s): VDOT Analysis scale: Statewide

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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-33 Background: VDOT's SSAR was approved in 2009 and revises the policy for the design and function a street must meet in order to be created. One part of this regulation is connectivity. Streets must be created to support better street connectivity within the area. Fewer culs-de-sac and dead end streets will be allowed to enter the state system. A better connected street system will enable a more efficient use of the roadways as well as reduce the amount of vehicle miles driven. More direct routes will be created for residents, delivery vehicles, and emergency vehicles when there is a better grid of streets. Focus area: Programming Objective: Program projects that reduce pollutant emissions (travel, trip length, mode split, emissions) Measure: Change in percentage of commercial vehicles by EPA tier compliance due to program Agency: TxDOT Document/website: Texas Emission Reduction Plan (TERP) http://www.tceq.texas.gov/airquality/terp Agency example measure: Reduce air emissions from vehicles and construction equipment by encouraging the use of alternative fuel vehicles Methodology: Activities such as driving vehicles and operating construction equipment contribute to creating pollutants that cause adverse health conditions. This measure will assure that air quality is safe to breathe and meets minimum air quality standards in Texas by reducing the amount of emissions of pollutants. Data source(s): TERP Summary Reports Analysis scale: Statewide Background: Realizing that air pollution is a problem, TxDOT has created the TERP program, which is designed to increase the use of alternative fuel vehicles. TERP offers financial incentives and grants to individuals or companies to purchase vehicles or construction equipment that reduce emissions more than EPA's Tier II standards. Focus area: Project development Objective: Develop projects that reduce pollutant emissions (travel, trip length, mode split, emissions) Measure: Change in percentage of commercial vehicles by EPA tier compliance due to project Agency: Washington State Department of Ecology Document/website: Diesel Particulate Emission Reduction Strategy for Washington State

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D-34 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/0602022.html Agency example measure: Reduce air emissions from non-road construction equipment by encouraging early achievement of the EPA Tier 4 emission standard Methodology: Diesel engines release pollutants that include over 40 cancer-causing substances. The goal is to reduce the amount of diesel exhaust that produces air pollution, which will in turn reduce the negative health effects of diesel pollution for the public. One of the most significant sources of diesel emissions is non-road construction equipment. Data source(s): Washington State Department of Ecology Analysis scale: Statewide Background: Washington State's Department of Ecology's Diesel Particulate Emission Reduction Strategy has the following four goals: (1) install emission reduction exhaust retrofits on 50% of the public legacy diesel fleet in four years; (2) install emission reduction exhaust retrofits and add-on fuel efficiency technologies on 50% of the private legacy diesel fleet in eight years; (3) evaluate, develop, and implement an idle-reduction program that addresses and remedies unnecessary idling through onboard retrofits, on-the-ground infrastructure, and anti- idling regulations; and (4) replace 25% of older (pre-1996 for non-road) legacy vehicles in the private fleet in eight years. Focus area: Construction Objective: Reduce equipment emissions (equipment conforming to latest EPA emissions standards) Measure: Percent of construction equipment at each tier of emissions standards (weighted or unweighted), percent of construction equipment retrofitted to meet latest EPA emissions standards Agency: Cook County Department of Environmental Control, Illinois Document/website: Cook County Green Construction Ordinance http://www.cookcountyclerk.com/countyboard/DocumentLibrary/2009ordinances.pdf Agency example measure: Reduce air emissions from non-road construction equipment by achievement of the EPA tier emission standards Methodology: Diesel engines release pollutants that include over 40 cancer-causing substances. The goal is to reduce the amount of diesel exhaust that produces air pollution, which will in turn reduce the negative health effects of diesel pollution for the public. One of the most significant sources of diesel emissions is construction equipment. Data source(s): Cook County Department of Environmental Control Analysis scale: Roadway, countywide Background: The Cook County Green Construction Ordinance requires all public construction contracts greater than $2 million (budgeted) to use ultralow sulfur diesel fuel for all non-road

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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-35 vehicles and equipment. It also requires the use of diesel retrofitting on all vehicles and equipment. In mid-2011, vehicles will need to be equipped to meet Level 2 PM (particulate matter) retrofits (on non-road equipment), and beginning in 2014 will need to be equipped to meet Level 3 retrofits (on non-road and road vehicles/equipment) for any publicly funded projects. Focus area: Maintenance Objective: Reduce adverse impact on traffic operations (lane reductions, traffic interruptions, detours, night operations) Measure: Change in peak hour/period capacity (e.g., lane miles), vehicle hours of delay, extra VMT, percent of passing VMT affected by maintenance Agency: INDOT Document/website: Interstate 70 Rehabilitation Project http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/98novdec/customer.cfm Agency example measure: Reducing the impact and delays on traffic operations by doing roadway maintenance during off-peak hours at night Methodology: Performing roadway maintenance during regular traffic hours (in particular peak hours) typically means closing a lane of traffic. This can cause long delays for commuters and increase the emissions of air pollutants. This measure encourages off-peak maintenance scheduling to minimize congestion (and air pollution). Data source(s): INDOT Analysis scale: Roadway, statewide Background: As part of the Interstate 70 Rehabilitation Project, INDOT included the cost of traffic delays caused by roadwork as part of the proposals. As a result, the contractor finished with fewer lane closures and ahead of schedule. This reduced the amount of traffic delay hours and roadway emissions. Focus area: System operations Objective: Maintain efficient traffic operations Measure: Change in percentage of toll payers using E-ZPass Agency: New York State Thruway Authority Document/website: E-ZPass New York http://www.thruway.ny.gov/about/performance-quarterly.html

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D-36 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency example measure: Increase efficiency in traffic operations through the use of E-ZPass electronic tolling Methodology: E-ZPass is an electronic tolling device that eliminates the need to stop at toll booths. Tolls are prepaid, and a toll tag is placed inside vehicles. The E-ZPass system maintains the account balance and usage. Data source(s): New York State Thruway Authority Analysis scale: Roadway, statewide Background: The New York State Thruway Authority has a goal to increase efficiency and effectiveness of operations. Quarterly, the authority assesses this goal based on performance measures. One of these performance measures is the percentage of E-ZPass transactions. E- ZPass transactions increased by 2.08% in the third quarter of 2010 as compared to the same quarter of 2009.