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Using the Sustainability Performance Measurement Framework 17 3. Promoting economic development and prosperity, and 4. Ensuring equity between and among population groups and over generations. Developing a Definition of Sustainability Sometimes a definition or statement on sustainability is taken as the starting point for an agency to apply sustainability through goals and performance measures. While defining sustainability is a valuable exercise, it does not form the basis for the application of this guidebook's SPM framework, which is instead rooted in the sustainability principles. Consider defining sustainability as a supporting component in this framework. See Appendix A for more guidance on how to define sustainability for your agency. STEP 2 DEVELOPING TRANSPORTATION SUSTAINABILITY GOALS To address and promote the four sustainability principles, 11 key goals have been defined for transportation agencies (Table 1). While the principles are general and are not transportation specific, these goals: Can relate the principles of sustainability to the transportation sector; Can be adapted, expanded, or customized, and can help your agency align its programs with sustainability principles; Can be revised to better align with your agency's current or existing goals or your agency's particular mission; and Can frame your collaborative work with other agencies (transportation and non- transportation related). By focusing on common goals, you and your agency partners decide how to leverage each other's work through joint projects and shared expertise. Explore how to share resources and potentially save money by matching funds or collaborating on common activities. Defining Sustainability Goals First, define your sustainability goals. The four fundamental sustainability principles provide guidance. A set of goals that cover these principles ensures that you have considered all aspects of sustainability. This framework and the compendium can be easily used in focused areas (e.g., the environmental aspect) if your agency chooses. Incorporating all the principles helps agencies fully understand the impacts and benefits of sustainability. The process that you take for defining and/or confirming your agency's sustainability goals will depend on whether your agency has established and adopted goals or is in the process of defining, redefining, or adopting a set of goals. Working with Established Goals Next, line your agency goals up with the four sustainability principles. You may find that all goals are relevant to one or more principles, or it may be that some are not relevant to any of the

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18 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies principles. To assess if you need to add or revise your goals, determine if your agency addresses all of the principles within its current goals. Once you have organized your goals by principle, use this organization to relate them to the example goals in Table 1. There is no requirement that the example goals match yours, but linking them will help identify where additional goals could help round out your sustainability program. These goals will be directly supported by your measures, so it is critical that you select goals that reflect your agency's overall mission and relationship to sustainability in order to build a solid framework. Case Study Summary: New York State Department of Transportation The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), as part of the development of their GreenLITES sustainability effort, uses a set of six principles (similar to the goals as defined in this framework) to organize the context of sustainability: 1. Protect and enhance the environment; 2. Conserve energy and natural resources; 3. Preserve or enhance the historic, scenic, and aesthetic project setting characteristics; 4. Encourage public involvement in the transportation planning process; 5. Integrate smart growth and other sound land-use practices; and 6. Encourage new and innovative approaches to sustainable design and how facilities are operated and maintained. Defining New Goals The 11 goals in the framework can serve as guidance as your agency selects and refines a set of sustainability goals. They can be edited and revised to any extent that creates a version that best fits your agency. You can also review the goals that other agencies have developed to get ideas; some agencies have chosen to use an even broader set of goal categories (e.g., public health, location efficiency) than are covered by the 11 goals in this framework. If you are in the process of identifying goals through a long-range transportation plan or other agency-wide document, these goals may become part of a larger set. They can also stand on their own as a set of sustainability goals.

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Using the Sustainability Performance Measurement Framework 19 Table 1. Recommended transportation sustainability goals. Sustainability Goal Definition 1. Safety Provide a safe transportation system for users and the general public. 2. Basic Provide a transportation system that offers accessibility that allows people to fulfill accessibility at least their basic needs. 3. Equity/equal Provide options that allow affordable and equitable transportation opportunities for mobility all sections of society. 4. System Ensure that the transportation system's functionality and efficiency are maintained efficiency and enhanced. 5. Security Ensure that the transportation system is secure from, ready for, and resilient to threats from all hazards. 6. Prosperity Ensure that the transportation system's development and operation support economic development and prosperity. 7. Economic Ensure the economic feasibility of transportation investments over time. viability 8. Ecosystems Protect and enhance environmental and ecological systems while developing and operating transportation systems. 9. Waste Reduce waste generated by transportation-related activities. generation 10. Resource Reduce the use of nonrenewable resources and promote the use of renewable consumption replacements. 11. Emissions and Reduce transportation-related emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. air quality

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20 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Case Study Summary: Oregon Department of Transportation The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has created a sustainability plan that is organized around seven focus areas. These focus areas are similar to the goals developed for this project: 1. Health and safety, 2. Social responsibility/workforce well-being and development, 3. Environmental stewardship, 4. Land use and infrastructure, 5. Energy/fuel use and climate change, 6. Material resource flows, and 7. Economic health. Within each of these seven focus areas, ODOT has developed goals, indicators, strategies, and actions. For more information, go to http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/SUS/sustainability_plans.shtml#Sustainability_Plan__Volumes _I__II__III_. Mapping Goals to Sustainability Principles The sample goals in Table 1 reflect general sustainability principles as they apply to the transportation sector. All of your goals that form part of the final agency goal set should relate to at least one principle of sustainability. Often, a goal will support more than one principle. Yet no one goal in itself is sufficient to achieve sustainability--it takes multiple goals, pursued in concert, to promote sustainability. When a final set of goals is defined, it's important to cross- check the package of goals to ensure that all of the principles are well addressed. In doing so, take care not to force-fit the goals to make them map to the principles. A balanced goal set, however, achieves comprehensive coverage of the basic principles of sustainability. Addressing Equity Equity takes special consideration; as discussed in Chapter 2 and illustrated in Figure 1, it is an overarching consideration for the principles of sustainability. Even if a goal successfully supports one or more of the first three sustainability principles (environmental, community health and vitality, economic prosperity), it could still have a negative impact on equity. For example, the economic and environmental benefits of a program could be distributed inequitably across wealthier and lower-income communities or have a negative effect on certain areas. In approaches that are not sustainable, these equity impacts are sometimes neglected for economic and environmental gain. To avoid this pitfall, each goal should be examined in terms of potential equity and distributional impacts. Your agency may already address these issues in terms of environmental justice requirements. This assessment should examine these factors of