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22 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Table 2. Transportation focus areas for objectives and performance measures. Focus Area Objective/Performance Measure 1. Planning Planning activities include the development of long-range plans, strategies, and frameworks intended to improve one or more functional areas of the transportation system (or the entire system). Documentation resulting from planning activities may highlight a general or categorical set of problems, outline a general program of projects or activities calculated to effect change over time, and provide an estimate of the resources required; it rarely will delve into specific project parameters. Examples may include regional transportation plans, master plans, strategic highway safety plans, and long-range thematic studies or plans. Transportation planning has strong links to land- use planning and comprehensive planning, which could be taken into consideration where possible. 2. Programming Programming is the process of determining which set of projects will be funded and the timing of that investment. These decisions are based on the policies, strategies, and other plans identified in the planning focus area. Funding availability must be considered for this process, and it may include a project prioritization tool and often requires broad input from throughout an agency and its partners. Example outcomes may include transportation improvement programs and unified planning work programs. 3. Project Project development involves defining the specific attributes of the projects selected development during the programming area, including alternatives analysis, engineering, design, specifications, environmental and regulatory analysis, and required mitigation. Example outcomes may include alternatives analysis, environmental impact assessments, and project designs. 4. Construction Construction involves building new transportation facilities, the addition or removal of ramps or flyovers, the addition or removal of lanes, and the addition or demolition of bridges, tunnels, or other integrated infrastructure. 5. Maintenance Maintenance activities are broad ranging and include routine and preventive maintenance. Significant maintenance and improvement activities such as paving/repaving and major infrastructure improvements such as re-decking are also included. 6. System Operations include all active or passive nonconstruction activities or systems dedicated operations to sustaining or improving the functionality of the transportation network. System operations include network monitoring, signalization and signage, traffic/driver information systems, tolling and managed lanes, speed control and enforcement, parking management, turning and merging permissions and restrictions, incident management, public transportation routing and management, and the management of integrated transportation and non-transportation infrastructure. STEP 4 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE MEASURES Your performance measures serve to assess your agency's progress toward each objective and provide the ongoing data to help your agency further improve performance. The measures should directly support the objectives, and building them out from your selected objectives is essential. However, your agency will have a greater chance of successful implementation if you build on the measures that you are currently tracking and using. In general, the performance measures can be classified as outcome, output, and process measures, as defined in the following. Outcome measures provide information on the achievement of broad goals such as transportation sustainability goals. These measure the result or impact of a program, policy, infrastructure decision, and so forth.

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Using the Sustainability Performance Measurement Framework 23 Output measures relate to results or changes in terms of the transportation system and its functioning. These measure a product or concrete item that results from a process action. Process measures relate to inputs or products related to a transportation agency's activities. These measure components of an agency practice that are deemed to support the related goal or objective. Table 3 shows examples of outcome, output, and process measures that support the same sustainability goal. Table 3. Example of outcome, output, and process measures. Goal: Reduce waste generated by transportation-related activity Measure Example Outcome Change in the amount of waste generated by type, weight, or volume Output Change in the percentage of operational activities with a recycling plan or waste diversion goal Process An asset management system exists While it might be easier for your agency to track process measures (since they relate most directly to actions taken by your agency), it is important to include output and outcome measures in order to truly address the goals of sustainability in terms of the transportation system performance and community level impacts. Case Study Summary: Florida Department of Transportation Florida DOT has not officially created a sustainability plan, but the concept and principles are interwoven throughout many agency and partner agency activities. Performance measures play a significant role in all of these programs and documents. The department's overarching approach to sustainability is embodied within the Florida Transportation Plan, the Strategic Intermodal System, mandates on the MPOs, recent regional visioning exercises, the agency's Efficient Transportation Decision Making process, and a 2007 executive order calling for the creation of a Florida Governmental Carbon Scorecard to track and report the reduction of greenhouse gases. Inventory Existing Measures 1. Gather a list of all performance measures currently in use across the agency (include data sources, method of tracking, frequency of reporting, etc.). 2. Match these measures with your established objectives (and by proxy, goals). 3. Identify areas where there are measures lacking. Measures can be lacking to support principles, goals, or focus areas. They can also be inadequate to support the application(s)