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Appendix B Performance Measures Compendium Note: Italicized entries are featured as examples in Appendix D. Goal 1: Safety--Provide a Safe Transportation System for Users and the General Public # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 1: Planning 1.1 Reduce the number Change in the number Change in the number of Change in the number and severity of and severity of crashes crashes by crash type and severity of truck crashes and contributing factor crashes 1.2 Ensure that safety Change in the number Change in the number of considerations are and severity of crashes grade crossing addressed for all by user type (e.g., collisions/incidents modes pedestrian, bicycle, transit user, freight) 1.3 Ensure that safety is Change in percentage of Change in the considered early in projects where safety of percentage of projects project planning a project was reviewed implementing predictive Performance Measures Compendium in each of the project methods of the AASHTO development stages by a Highway Safety Manual multidisciplinary review team B-1

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B-2 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Goal 1: Safety--Provide a Safe Transportation System for Users and the General Public # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 1: Planning 1.4 Ensure that projects Change in the Number of projects take into consideration percentage of projects incorporating the use of the 4Es (engineering, where non- innovative TSM and ITS education, infrastructure-based solutions that address enforcement, EMS) of safety countermeasures human factors safety were selected as part of considerations the project 1.5 Plan road networks Existence of a functional Existence of a system that are predictable class system of that adjust speeds based and recognizable highways on the presence of alternative modes and context

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Goal 1: Safety--Provide a Safe Transportation System for Users and the General Public # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 2: Programming 1.6 Develop programs that Change in return on Change in the number maximize return on investment (reduction in and proportion of safety investment the number and severity projects evaluated on of crashes for the substantive safety expenditure) versus nominal safety 1.7 Develop a Number and proportion Number and cost of performance-based of projects evaluated for projects that address safety improvement effect on crashes safety concerns at the program system, corridor, and local levels 1.8 Prioritize projects with Change in number of explicit safety programmed projects considerations with highest reduction in crashes out of all alternatives Performance Measures Compendium B-3

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B-4 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Goal 1: Safety--P rovi de a S afe Transportati on System for Users and the General P ublic # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 3: Project Development 1.9 Develop projects that Return on investment fo r Project is evaluated on meet maximum safety individual project substantive safety requirements (reduction in the number versus nominal safety and severity of crashes for the expenditure) 1.10 Apply a performance- Project is evaluated for Project addresses safety based safety effect on crashes concerns at the system, improvement program corridor, and local levels (as relevant) 1.11 Develop projects with Selected project has explicit safety highest reduction in considerations crashes out of all alternatives

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Goal 1: Safety--Provide a Safe Transportation System for Users and the General Public # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 4: Construction 1.12 Reduce crash risk in Change in number of Change in number of Change in number and work zones crashes per time unit crashes as a portion of severity of work zone within a particular work total time of work zones truck crashes zone by functional class, county, and district/region--where possible, distinguish between active and passive work zone time periods 1.13 Reduce the risk to Change in number of Number of construction Number of construction Change in the number of construction and crashes involving one or and maintenance and maintenance grade crossing maintenance personnel more construction and personnel killed at work personnel injured at collisions/incidents due working in work zones maintenance personnel zones by functional work zones by to new construction along roadways and/or vehicles per time class, county, and functional class, county, (removal of grade unit that the work zone district/region and district/region crossing) exists 1.14 Provide improved work Change in the number of Change in the number Change in the number Change in the zone traffic control traffic control supervisors of annual traveler safety of workers injured percentage of activities that are trained and on- complaints during the course of construction or site traffic control activities maintenance projects that use traveler information systems to provide public information on alternative routes and modes during Performance Measures Compendium construction or maintenance 1.15 Maintain safe facilities Change in time duration Change in the time Change in the to correct potential taken to carry out percentage of roadway safety concerns repairs to roadside construction and that require construction safety hardware (by maintenance projects and/or maintenance category, e.g., providing accessible action guardrail, guardrail end- routes during treatment, cable barrier, construction and cable barrier end maintenance (where treatment) applicable) B-5

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B-6 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Goal 1: Safety--P rovi de a S afe Transportati on System for Users and the General P ublic # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 5: Maintenanc e 1.16 Reduce crash risk in Change in number of Change in number of Change in number and work zones crashes per time unit crashes as a portion of severity of wo rk zone within a particular work total time of work zones truck crashes zone by functional class, county, and district/region--where possible, distinguish between active and passive work zone time periods 1.17 Reduce the risk to Change in number of Number of construction Number of construction Change in the number of construction and crashes involving one or and maintenance and maintenance grade crossing maintenance personnel more construction and personnel killed at work personnel injured at collisions/incidents due working in work zones maintenance personnel zones by functional work zones by to new construction along roadways and/or vehicles per time class, county, and functional class, county, (removal o f grade unit that the work zone district/region and district/region crossing) exists 1.18 Provide improved wo rk Change in the number of Change in the number Change in the number Change in the zone traffic con trol traffic contro l supervisors of traveler safety of workers injured percentage of activities that are tra ined and on- complaints annually during the course of construction or site traffic contro l activities maintenance projects that use traveler information systems to provide public information on alternative routes and modes during construction 1.19 Maintain sa fe fac ilities Change in time duration Change in the time Change in the Change in the to correct potential taken to carry out percentage of percentage of roadway safety concerns repairs to roadside scheduled maintenance construction and that require construction safety hardware (by safety activities maintenance projects and/or maintenance category, e.g., guardra il, delivered on time providing accessible action guardrail end-treatment, routes during cable barrier, cable construction and barrier end treatment) maintenance (where applicable)

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Goal 1: Safety--P rovi de a S afe Transportati on System for Users and the General P ublic # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 6: System Operations 1.20 Reduce crash Change in number of Change in number and severity of Change in the number of risk on two-lane crashes by crash type on truck crashes in a grade crossing rural highways two-lane rural highways corridor/segment due to collisions/incidents due to operational improvements operational improvements (e.g., traffic control and warning devices) 1.21 Reduce the Change in transit crashes Number of fatal and disabling crash risk to the as a proportion of total injuries sustained by transit users traveling public crashes on the highway as a portion of 100 m illion using transit network passenger miles travelled or o f 100,000 riders 1.22 Reduce the Change in the total number Change in the percentage of crash risk to of pedestrian and bicyclist signal systems with active vulnerable road crashes, and fatal and pedestrian devices (e.g., users disabling crashes, by crosswalks, signals meeting ADA 100,000 population standards) 1.23 Reduce the risk Change in the total time Change in the total number and to the traveling taken to clear an incident severity of secondary crashes public on scene (e.g., crash, (crashes occurring as a result of freeways during hazardous material spill) queuing or disruptions in traffic incidents from the time o f the flow as a result o f an incident) incident 1.24 Reduce crashes Change in the percentage Change in the percentage of Performance Measures Compendium related to of signals coordinated expressway/freeway ramps intersection and along each major arterial metered in a corridor where ramp opera tions severe congestion exists 1.25 Reduce crashes Change in the percentage Change in the percentage of Change in percentage of Change in the Change in related to of signs meeting edge lines meeting system meeting curve percentage of percentage of network retroreflectivity crite ria retroreflectivity crite ria warning, speed, and intersections system providing operations signing criteria providing turn accessible routes pockets and associated protected left-turn phasing when warranted B-7

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B-8 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Goal 2: Basic Accessibility--Provide a Transportation System That Offers Accessibility That Allows People to Fulfill at Least Their Basic Needs # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 1: Planning 2.1 Ensure accessibility to Change in the number Change in jobs/housing jobs of jobs within balance reasonable travel time (by mode) for region's population 2.2 Ensure accessibility to Change in travel time Change in travel time of Change in number of essential destinations (by mode) to schools, goods to essential enterprises in key health services, grocery markets (region wide) industries with stores, civic and public reasonable access to spaces, recreation high-capacity highway or rail facilities

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Goal 2: Basic Accessibility--Provide a Transportation System That Offers Accessibility That Allows People to Fulfill at Least Their Basic Needs # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 2: Programming 2.3 Program projects that Change in the number increase access to job of jobs within opportunities reasonable travel time (by mode) for region's population due to project 2.4 Program projects that Change in travel time Change in travel time of Change in number of increase access to (by mode) to schools, goods to essential enterprises in key essential destinations health services, grocery markets due to project industries with stores, civic and public reasonable access to spaces, recreation due high-capacity highway to project or rail facilities due to project Performance Measures Compendium B-9

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B-10 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Goal 2: Basic Accessibility--Provide a Transportation System That Offers Accessibility That Allows People to Fulfill at Least Their Basic Needs # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 3: Project Development 2.5 Develop projects that Change in the number increase access to job of jobs within opportunities reasonable travel time (by mode) for region's population due to selected project alternative 2.6 Develop projects that Change in travel time Change in travel time of Change in number of increase access to (by mode) to schools, goods to essential enterprises in key essential destinations health services, grocery markets due to selected industries with stores, civic and public project alternative reasonable access to spaces, recreation due high-capacity highway to selected project or rail facilities due to alternative selected project alternative

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Goal 2: Basic Accessibility--Provide a Transportation System That Offers Accessibility That Allows People to Fulfill at Least Their Basic Needs # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 4: Construction 2.7 Reduce delay to Change in travel time commuters due to delay for commuters construction activities due to construction activities 2.8 Minimize travel time Change in travel time Change in travel time of delay (by mode) for delay (by mode) for goods to essential affected population affected population due markets due to due to construction to construction activities construction activities Performance Measures Compendium B-11

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Goal 10: Resource Consumption--Reduce the Use of Nonrenewable Resources and Promote the Use of Renewable Replacements # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 5: Maintenance 10.17 Use biofuel for non- Percentage of machine- road maintenance hours or gallons of equipment biofuel used during maintenance 10.18 Purchase regionally Total weight/volume/cost produced maintenance purchased within a materials certain radius (e.g., 500 miles) from the project 10.19 Reduce energy usage Total machine-hours of due to maintenance energy-efficient non- road equipment as a percentage of all maintenance-related Performance Measures Compendium machine-hours B-57

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B-58 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Goal 10: Resource Consumption--Reduce the Use of Nonrenewable Resources and Promote the Use of Renewable Replacements # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 6: System Operations 10.20 Maintain a sustainable Change in the Change in the fleet percentage of zero/low percentage of total emissions vehicles in diesel fuel substituted DOT fleet with alternative fuels, ULSD, electric motors 10.21 Purchase sustainable Sustainable purchasing materials as a priority plan that defines and establishes priority for sustainable materials (e.g., recycled, reused, local) 10.22 Purchase green energy Change in the amount and percentage of green energy purchased 10.23 Reduce energy usage Change in the number of Change in percentage due to operations energy-efficient fixtures, of renewable energy, in total kWh saved, etc. kWh, created in relation to operations energy requirements

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Goal 11: Emissions and Air Quality--Reduce Transportation-Related Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 1: Planning 11.1 Reduce activity that Change in trips, vehicle Change in percentage generates pollutant trips, vehicle miles of commercial vehicles emissions (travel, trip traveled (VMT), percent by EPA tier compliance length, mode split, non-driver, tons of emissions) emissions per day 11.2 Reduce polluting Change in emissions by Lane miles of new Number of new exhaust emissions criteria pollutant, total, access improvements to separated rail crossings (criteria pollutants and and by mode/ton mile intermodal and port replacing grade GHGs) facilities crossings 11.3 Increase land use Change in jobs/housing Change in zoned compactness, density, balance residential density levels and balance of around essential service interacting uses hubs (compactness, density, balance) 11.4 Increase the use of Change in planned miles nonmotorized modes of transit routes, pedestrian facilities, designated bike facilities, population within 1 mile of transit, connectivity index (pedestrian Performance Measures Compendium facilities, bike facilities, transit routes) 11.5 Increase street Change in street connectivity connectivity index 11.6 Reduce congestion, Change percent VMT at Change in percentage promote low emissions low emission speed of toll lanes with EZPass travel speeds ranges B-59

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B-60 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Goal 11: Emissions and Air Quality--Reduce Transportation-Related Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 1: Planning (continued) 11.7 Reduce proximity of air- Change in sensitive pollution-sensitive land receptors within close uses to major pollution proximity, residential sources (high-volume population within critical highways) distance, percentage of ethnic/racial population groups within critical distance 11.8 Reduce concentration Change in population of critical pollutants in within areas above EPA populated areas (model standard (non-attainment forecast) (criteria areas), percent of pollutants, GHGs) ethnic/racial population groups within areas above EPA standard, percent of school population within areas above EPA standard 11.9 Provide measures that Change in CO2 O2 can reduce air pollutant conversion capacity of concentrations (e.g., planned ROW plant landscaping) materials

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Goal 11: Emissions and Air Quality--Reduce Transportation-Related Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 2: Programming 11.10 Program projects that Change in trips, vehicle Change in percentage Change in emissions Lane miles of new Number of new reduce pollutant trips, VMT, percent non- of commercial vehicles by criteria pollutant, access improvements to separated rail crossings emissions (travel, trip driver, tons of emissions by EPA tier compliance total, and by mode/ton intermodal and port replacing grade length, mode split, per day due to program due to program mile due to program facilities due to program crossings due to emissions) program 11.11 Increase use of Change in route or nonmotorized modes service miles of transit routes, pedestrian facilities, designated bike facilities, population within 1 mile of transit, person-miles walk distance to transit stops, person-miles distance from building entrances to public pedestrian facilities (sidewalks, pedestrianways), connectivity index (pedestrian facilities, bike facilities, transit) due to program 11.12 Increase street Change in street connectivity connectivity index due to program Performance Measures Compendium 11.13 Reduce congestion, Change in percent VMT promote low emissions at low emission speed travel speeds range, total vehicle delay, percent stops (of intersection approach volumes), multimodal level of service (by mode), percent VMT at each level of service due to program B-61

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B-62 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Goal 11: Emissions and Air Quality--Reduce Transportation-Related Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 2: Programming (Continued) 11.14 Reduce populations Change in population within critical distance within critical distance of of major highway high-volume highways emissions sources [specify threshold (criteria pollutants, average daily traffic GHGs) (ADT)] (schools, hospitals, residences, ethnic/racial group equity) due to program 11.15 Reduce traffic volumes Change in ADT (total, on major highways diesel), emissions due to within critical distance program of sensitive receptors (schools, hospitals, residences, ethnic/racial equity) 11.16 Provide measures that Change in CO2 O2 can reduce air conversion capacity of pollutant project plant materials concentrations (e.g., due to program landscaping) 11.17 Reduce travel speeds Change in population to those within the percentage within a lowest emissions critical distance of traffic ranges (criteria operating at speeds pollutants, GHGs) outside the lowest emissions range due to program

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Goal 11: Emissions and Air Quality--Reduce Transportation-Related Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 3: Project Development 11.18 Develop projects that Change in trips, vehicle Change in percentage Change in emissions Lane miles of new Number of new reduce pollutant trips, VMT, percent non- of commercial vehicles by criteria pollutant, access improvements to separated rail crossings emissions (travel, trip driver, tons of emissions by EPA tier compliance total, and by mode/ton intermodal and port replacing grade length, mode split, per day due to project due to project mile due to project facilities due to project crossings due to project emissions) 11.19 Increase use of Change in route or nonmotorized modes service miles of transit routes, pedestrian facilities, designated bike facilities, population within 1 mile of transit, person-miles walk distance to transit stops, person-miles distance from building entrances to public pedestrian facilities (sidewalks, pedestrianways), connectivity index (pedestrian facilities, bike facilities, transit) due to project 11.20 Increase street Change in street connectivity connectivity index due to project Performance Measures Compendium 11.21 Reduce congestion, Change in percent VMT promote low emissions at low emission speed travel speeds due to range, total vehicle project delay, percent stops (of intersection approach volumes), multimodal level of service (by mode), percent VMT at each level of service due to project B-63

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B-64 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Goal 11: Emissions and Air Quality--Reduce Transportation-Related Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 3: Project Development (Continued) 11.22 Reduce populations Change in population within critical distance within critical distance of of major highway high-volume highways emissions sources (specify threshold ADT) (criteria pollutants, (schools, hospitals, GHGs) residences, ethnic/racial group equity) due to project 11.23 Reduce traffic volumes Change in ADT (total, on major highways diesel), emissions due to within critical distance project of sensitive receptors (schools, hospitals, residences, ethnic/racial equity) 11.24 Provide measures that Change in CO2 O2 can reduce air conversion capacity of pollutant project plant materials concentrations (e.g., due to project landscaping) 11.25 Reduce travel speeds Change in population to those within the percentage within a lowest emissions critical distance of traffic ranges (criteria operating at speeds pollutants, GHGs) outside the lowest emissions range due to project

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Goal 11: Emissions and Air Quality--Reduce Transportation-Related Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 4: Construction 11.26 Reduce construction activity that Engine hours of operation, emission rates, generates pollutant emissions idling hours per day, tons of emissions per (engine operation, engine day due to construction emission rates, idling time, emissions) 11.27 Reduce adverse impact on traffic Change in peak hour/period capacity (e.g., operations (lane reductions, lane miles), vehicle hours of delay, extra traffic interruptions, detours, VMT, percent of passing VMT affected by night operations) construction 11.28 Reduce equipment emissions Percent of construction equipment at each (equipment conforming to latest tier of emissions standards (weighted or EPA emissions standards) unweighted), percent of construction equipment retrofitted to meet latest EPA emissions standards 11.29 Reduce on-site construction Percent change in hours of diesel equipment activity equipment operation compared to conventional techniques, percent of construction completed off-site (e.g., precast) 11.30 Reduce construction equipment Daily emissions within critical distance emissions within a critical (criteria pollutants, GHGs) due to Performance Measures Compendium distance of sensitive populations construction (schools, hospitals, residences, ethnic/racial group equity) 11.31 Reschedule urban construction Percentage of diesel construction activity with high emission rates equipment operating hours during low to periods of low pollutant pollutant concentration hours concentrations B-65

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B-66 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Goal 11: Emissions and Air Quality--Reduce Transportation-Related Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 5: Maintenance 11.32 Reduce maintenance activity that Engine hours of operation, emission generates pollutant emissions rates, idling hours per day, tons of (engine operation, engine emissions per day due to maintenance emission rates, idling time, emissions) 11.33 Reduce adverse impact on traffic Change in peak hour/period capacity operations (lane reductions, (e.g., lane miles), vehicle hours of delay, traffic interruptions, detours, extra VMT, percent of passing VMT night operations) affected by maintenance 11.34 Reduce equipment emissions Percent of maintenance equipment at (equipment conforming to latest each tier of emissions standards EPA emissions standards) (weighted or unweighted), percent of maintenance equipment retrofitted to meet latest EPA emissions standards 11.35 Reduce maintenance equipment Daily emissions within critical distance emissions within a critical (criteria pollutants, GHGs) due to distance of sensitive populations maintenance (schools, hospitals, residences, ethnic/racial group equity) 11.36 Reschedule urban maintenance Percentage of diesel maintenance activity with high emission rates equipment operating hours during low to periods of low pollutant pollutant concentration hours concentrations

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Goal 11: Emissions and Air Quality--Reduce Transportation-Related Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases # Objectives Measure A Measure B Measure C Measure D Measure E Focus Area 6: System Operations 11.37 Reduce congestion- Change in the percent of VMT at low Change in emissions by related emissions emission speed ranges, total vehicle delay, criteria pollutant, total, percent of approaching traffic that is stopped, and by mode/ton mile due multimodal level of service (by mode) to operational improvements 11.38 Reduce engine idling Change in vehicle hours of idling (on-road, non-road) 11.39 Promote nonmotorized Change in multimodal level of service, modes percent telework jobs (person-days/week), percent jobs within __ minutes of population (average) by nonmotorized modes, percent population within 1/4 mile of transit service, percent jobs within 1/4 mile of transit service, percent jobs within 1/2 mile of designated bike route, percent population within 1/2 mile of designated bike routes, average auto/transit travel time ratio (selected corridors) 11.40 Maintain efficient traffic Percent of area traffic signals retimed during Change in percentage of operations past three years, percent of area traffic toll payers using EZPass signals within coordinated signal systems re- coordinated during past three years Performance Measures Compendium 11.41 Promote driving shifts Change in percent (volume) of traffic passing to nonschool hours school zones during times when schools are not in session 11.42 Promote nonmotorized Change in the percentage of person miles modes traveled by nonmotorized modes, emissions B-67