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23 CHAPTER FOUR DUTIES, ROLES, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND OVERSIGHT This chapter identifies both the key roles and the responsi- out multiple levels in the organization. Both airlines and GSPs bilities proposed by the literature review and information answered survey questions pertaining to who within the orga- collected from the participant surveys and interviews. nization was responsible for safety information dissemination at the national and local level. Responses ranged from vice A common issue is present in both the relevant literature presidents and CEOs at the national level to ground service provided for this study and the responses from participants supervisors, union safety representatives, and station safety from the survey. This issue is the loosely defined duties, managers/supervisors at the local level. No matter the title roles, and responsibilities that are currently in place for or rank, each stakeholder used multiple methods to inform personnel from airports, airlines, and GSPs. As previously staff of safety concerns. These methods included audit find- mentioned, safety at U.S. airports is a shared responsibility ings, reports, onsite visits, Line Operations Safety Audits, daily among the FAA, airlines, and airports, but commonly briefings, bulletins, e-mails and review boards. The methods accepted duties that promote a unified safety culture are used by airlines and GSPs when providing notice to staff of severely lacking. Cabrera et al. (1997) suggested that safety safety concerns are presented in Figures 8 and 9. climates can be an optimum indicator in evaluating SMSs as well as change-oriented programs. Safety attitude of man- To further promote the investment to safety as an organi- agement, efficient performance feedback, well-designed and zational duty, management divides hazard reporting respon- developed motivation strategies, the existence of an adequate sibilities across the entire workforce. This collaboration of decision-making process, company philosophy toward safety duties helps build a safety culture by increasing staff aware- as a priority, optimum upward and downward communica- ness and by spreading the responsibility for incident identifi- tion, and good reporting systems have all been identified cation among all participants. By engaging in nonpunitive from the early 1990s onward as being components of a safe safety reporting, the integrity of the reporting system can be organization (Cabrera et al. 1997). Company policies toward maximized. Based on the survey, five airlines and all four safety, emphasis on training or general safety strategies, and GSPs engage in nonpunitive reporting practices. The remain- risk perception are several of the identified dimensions that ing two airline respondents reported that they depended on the aide personnel in promoting a safe organizational operating type of safety violation. Implementing this type of reporting environment system generates trust in the individuals providing the infor- mation to promote frequent reporting of hazards, incidents, Based on the synthesis survey, 86.2% of airports are respon- accidents, errors, and near misses. sible for the oversight and responsibility of the ramp/apron area, which includes exclusive use space, jet bridges, and Participants in the survey reported on several practices ramps; however, only 62.1% conduct regular ramp/apron used to promote safety oversight. Providing access to multi- safety meetings with tenants. Of the airports that conduct ramp ple techniques encourages reporting and further removes the safety meetings, 66.7% are monthly, 23.8% are quarterly and reluctance to submit information. A visual depiction of the 9.5% are conducted as needed. Gaps in management oversight reporting options given to airline and GSP personnel to pro- may establish a reactive means to ramp safety instead of pro- mote their role in hazard reporting is provided in Figures 10 active mitigation. To promote cohesion in the administration and 11. All respondents noted that the most common form of of safety practices, 65.5% of surveyed airports conduct safety reporting was directly to a manger or lead personnel. Com- inspections on the ramp or in the baggage make-up areas. mon suggestions from participants outlined that no matter Another 10.3% inspect common use gates and baggage areas, the system used most, it is important for management to train leaving 24.1% not inspecting any of the identified areas. Many and educate personnel on their roles and responsibilities per- responsibilities in the non-movement area were cited as airline taining to safety oversight and hazard reporting. Approach- and GSP areas of responsibility. ing safety oversight with reporting practices as outlined previously reduces the total number of accidents and incidents To promote knowledge on current safety situations and by decreasing the rate of safety deficiencies on the ramp concerns, management utilizes a variety of practices through- (FSF 2011).

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24 8 7 6 5 Count 4 3 2 1 None 0 Audit findings Onsite visits LOSAs Fines Other Depends on and reports the location Airline Formal Methods to Inform Staff of Safety Concerns FIGURE 8 Airline methods to inform safety concerns. [What formal method does your (Airline) company use to provide notice to inform staff of safety concerns? Select all that apply.] LOSAs = Line Operations Safety Audits. 3.5 3 2.5 Count 2 1.5 1 0.5 None None None 0 Audit Onsite LOSAs Fines All Depends Other findings visits on the and reports location GSP Formal Methods to Inform Staff of Safety Concerns FIGURE 9 Safety Concerns. ["What formal method does your (GSP) company use to provide notice to inform staff of safety concerns?"] 8 7 6 5 Count 4 3 2 1 0 Report to manager Submit a written Submit a phone Submit an Report or lead report report electronic report anonymously Airline Methods to Report Hazards/Unsafe Conditions FIGURE 10 Airline methods to report hazards/unsafe conditions. [How do staff (Airline) report hazards or unsafe work conditions? Select all that apply.]

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25 3.5 3 2.5 2 Count 1.5 1 0.5 0 Report to Submit a written Submit a phone Submit an Report All of the above manager or lead report report electronic report anonymously GSP Methods to Report Hazards/Unsafe Conditions FIGURE 11 GSP methods to report hazards/unsafe conditions. [How do staff (GSP) report hazards or unsafe work conditions? Select all that apply.]