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27 Provide specific apron safety training for contractors tees, (2) Promotion and Training, (3) Data Management and and vendors with apron driving authority. Reporting, (4) Operational Improvements, and (5) Standards, Provide training on apron rules and regulations for mem- Policies, Controls, Audits. bers of the airport community. Safety Committees Data Management and Reporting Research and Survey Findings Develop an effective and efficient apron accident and incident reporting system. The 29 airports responding to the synthesis study survey indi- Collect, analyze, and review incidents and accident data cated that to some degree meetings relating to ramp safety on a regular basis. take place with airline and GSP tenants on either a monthly or Receive up-to-date information, data, and procedures quarterly basis. Meetings are either coordinated by airports or pertaining to apron safety management by joining the limited to airlines. Some respondents indicated that issues are ACI Operational Safety Sub-committee. resolved at meetings that are not specifically designated as ramp safety meetings (such as station manager meetings) and others reported that safety concerns are addressed as they are Operational Improvements identified. A representative of a non hub airport commented that with regard to safety at the airport: Provide follow me services as and when required. Undertake daily FOD patrols with a sweeper truck. Develop a program of regular apron cleaning and air- The Airport Operations Managers communicate with Air- port community FOD walks. line Station Managers and Supervisors almost daily about ongoing operations at the airport. Furthermore, if a prob- lem does arise, we simply talk with the Airline Station Man- Standards, Policies, Controls, and Audits agers and Supervisors. The Airport is small enough that we maintain open lines of communication between all parties. Introduce color-coded permit systems for access to spe- If irregular activity is noticed, it is communicated and dealt cific areas. with on the spot. Provide daily, weekly, monthly, and annual random auditing of GSE. Develop policies for apron management and vehicle parking. Industry Suggestions Ensure that all airside workers wear high visibility According to ACI's 2007 survey of members regarding reflective clothing. improvements to ramp safety, the addition of safety meet- Harmonize full-scale airport emergency plan exercise ings was listed a number of times as a potential safety pro- with the apron safety plan. gram enhancement. Safety meetings are a means to discuss Have a progressive enforcement policy in place for non- concerns and to inform airport and tenants of operational compliance with traffic directives, possibly resulting in changes or to report on the status of identified hazards and permanently taking away driving privileges. mitigations. OSHA's Voluntary Protection Program rec- Identify minimum maintenance standards for all airside ommends safety meetings as an important aspect of its pro- vehicles. gram. Airport safety construction programs require safety Introduce wildlife hazard control unit. meetings for contractors. ICAO's Annex 14 requires safety Perform regular safety audits of aircraft turnarounds. meetings for aerodromes under the SMS program. Implement a SMS. Use protective and reflective gear for all airside personnel. Monitor vehicular movement. Promotion and Training Send warning letters pertaining to careless behavior to the ground handling provider's representatives. Research and Survey Findings All airlines and GSPs surveyed in this synthesis study provide STUDY FINDINGS AND INDUSTRY SUGGESTIONS a variety of training to staff depending on roles and responsi- bilities, including both classroom and on-the-job training This section provides an overview of the earlier industry sug- ranging in duration from 1 to 3 or more days. Training gestions with regard to the study findings and is organized by focuses on carrier operations and is not consistent across topics presented in the previous section: (1) Safety Commit- providers; however, survey respondents indicated in various

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28 comments that training either met or exceeded airline and each airline or GSP collects and reports internally on trends. OSHA requirements. Airports require a range of training and Rarely, unless accidents occur between carriers or result in certification requirements based on the type of service (fuel- airport facility damage, are accidents and incidents centrally ing, for example, requires certification). Approximately 60% documented by airport management. The FAA, NTSB, and of the airlines and GSPs surveyed as part of this synthesis OSHA collect data separately when investigating accidents, study regarding standardized training responded that they incidents, and fatalities and, as reported by the GAO, the lack would see value in the program as long as the standardization of data on accidents and incidents limits the industry's ability allowed for flexibility to support site-specific differences. to understand inherent risks in ramp operations. Additionally, 85% of airport respondents believe that addi- tional training would benefit airports and tenants alike. Air- lines and GSPs typically require refresher training and audit Industry Suggestions their training programs. When airports were asked "Does your airport review tenant safety training programs as part In the U.S. GAO report on ramp safety, the GAO is recom- of the lease or license agreement?" 83% responded "No" mending that the FAA take several measures to enhance and 17% "Yes." Typical airport oversight of training pro- runway and ramp safety including "improving data collec- grams is limited to AOA and AMA driving and various tion on runway overruns and ramp accidents" and that "a airport comments indicated that airlines and GSPs were lack of complete accident data and standards for ground accountable and responsible for staff training and that the air- handling hinders the effort to understand the nature, extent, port's role in advising tenants on their training programs was and cost of accidents and to improve safety" (Dillingham negligible. 2007). The ability to collect industry data on ramp acci- dents and incidents would require significant collaboration among airlines, GSPs, and airports. Public disclosure of acci- Industry Suggestions dent and incident data could serve as a deterrent unless the FAA is able to protect the information through legislative Both AOSP and ACI suggest that training is an important measures. aspect of ramp safety. Prill (1999) indicated that one-third of ramp operations managers consider inadequate training to be a contributing factor in ramp accidents and is the result of a Operational Improvements lack of motivation and knowledge. Chamberlin et al. (1996) suggested that a number of actions could be taken to mitigate Research and Survey Findings accidents such as provide better training of marshallers and wingwalkers to include scenario-based training. Cabrera et al. Of the 29 airports surveyed in this synthesis study, 90% (1997) reported that company policies toward safety, empha- responded "Yes" to the question "Does your airport manage sis on training or general safety strategies, and risk percep- or collaborate with airlines and ground service providers to tion are several of the identified dimensions that promote a inspect for FOD on the ramp/apron?" Only 10% of the air- safe organizational operating environment. One GA survey ports surveyed indicated "No." General comments included respondent commented that that FOD management by tenants is a lease requirement and that airports conduct movement area FOD walks while ten- ants address FOD on the ramp areas. FOD is traditionally one of the key areas where tenants and airports work together on We had a full-time position for a safety/training person for safety initiatives. Many airports and tenants provide prizes the 2009/10 Budget, however the city instituted a hiring and other incentives for tenants and staff to manage FOD. freeze and we lost the position. So the responsibility had to fall back on someone who already had many hats to wear. We are hoping to try for the position again in the 2011/12 Industry Suggestions Budget year. We feel that to have an effective safety pro- gram you really need a full time individual. Two suggestions from the ACI membership survey indicated FOD management as a possible operational improvement. Most airports participate in or have oversight of FOD pro- grams both on the ramp and the movement areas. The FAA Data Management and Reporting requires FOD management through Part 121 for airlines and Research and Survey Findings Part 139 for airports; FOD is a shared responsibility that crosses typical airline and airport ramp oversight that allows Today, apart from surveys conducted by industry aviation for coordinated and collaborative joint efforts. The collabo- organizations such as ACI, there is no centralized database of ration that is present in FOD programs could serve as a model accident, incident, or near miss data from which to trend poten- for future training and ramp oversight and safety program tial hazards and hazardous operations on the ramp. Typically, management.

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29 Standards, Policies, Controls, Audits programs such as the IATA Safety Audit for Ground Opera- tions (ISAGO) or Insurance agencies?" The majority (86%) Research and Survey Findings replied "No," with 10% replying "Yes" and 3% indicating "Other," with the comment that if an audit occurred the Most airlines and GSPs conduct internal safety and training respondent was not aware of it. One of the airports commented audits. Airports rarely conduct tenant audits or inspections that the safety inspection was conducted by its insurance unless accidents or incidents occur. Airports typically restrict inspections to the movement area as a requirement of Part company. 139. When asked if airports conduct safety inspections on the ramp or in the baggage make-up areas, 66% responded "Yes," 24% replied "No," and 10% indicated inspections only occur Industry Suggestions in common use areas. Airport comments included an increase in ramp safety inspections and a non hub airport reported that A variety of suggestions from the ACI survey group recom- "Our self inspection program includes operations personnel mended audits, policies, standards, monitoring, and the imple- monitoring the condition of the airfield (including the ramp mentation of SMS as possible ramp improvements for safety. area) at least once daily. However, no safety specific checklist John Goglia, AOSP panel chairman suggests that airports exists beyond the self inspection checklist." take on the role of ramp management and monitoring. Air- port oversight of the ramp through safety meetings, audits, Airports surveyed were also asked "Does your airport and inspections provide a centralized coordination point for require an external audit of ground service providers through documenting and reporting on safety issues.