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3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Aircraft Familiarization--typically specific to the air- craft type serviced at the specific airport location In the United States, the ramp/apron area is typically managed Aircraft loading (weight and balance introduction) by both airports and airlines. (Note: ramp and apron will be Aircraft limitations (size of acceptable packages and used interchangeably within this document.) The airport pro- floor weight) vides facilities for passenger and cargo access to air trans- Cargo compartment limitations (stacking height, bin portation such as gates, cargo hard stands, passenger loading webbing, etc.). bridges, and fueling systems to support aircraft servicing at the Aircraft Servicing--lavatory and potable water servicing terminal. Airlines establish agreements with airports for gate Cabin service and cabin search (now mandated by usage and access to facilities. Ground service operations can be the TSA). managed directly by airlines or outsourced to subcontractors. Receipt and Dispatch--marshaling of aircraft into the These ground operations occur in the ramp areas and include a gate, chocking, off load and up load, push back, and variety of services, as listed in chapter two. Airport oversight of disconnect. the ramp includes development and deployment of rules and regulations and airfield driving training programs to ensure Typically Mandated Training requires approximately staff, tenants, and service providers adhere to standards such 8 hours for ramp and cargo operation personnel. Operational/ as complying with speed limits, wearing personal protective Task Training includes approximately 32 hours of classroom equipment (PPE) such as safety vests, and properly disposing and on the job training (OJT). Most GSP and airlines have of hazardous waste. an extended period of OJT where a new employee works with another more experienced person before the new staff can Airlines and ground handlers require operational and safety begin operating equipment. Also airlines and GSPs comply training of all staff to support aircraft servicing, including use with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of ground service equipment (GSE) such as belt loaders, tugs, required training for PPE, etc. transporters, unit load devices, baggage carts, pallet loaders, and portable ground power units. Often, ground handlers Airports, airlines, and ground handlers all function inde- require customized staff training that supports individual air- pendently to support passenger and cargo operations through line operations or procedures. a variety of skills and services; however, in the United States no single standard or regulation exists that integrates these Airlines and GSPs comply with CFR 14 Part 121 training operations into a comprehensive ramp safety program. including the following: The FAA's Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 139 requires safety measures such as lighting, pavement Mandated Training management, ice and snow removal, and foreign object debris (FOD) management for an airport operator's ramp Dangerous Goods area. Currently, Part 139 does not mandate airport oversight Blast and Suction of ramp operations. Ramp Safety--(operators typically combine ramp safety in the ramp basic training, which is not mandatory) Recently, the International Civil Aviation Organization Annual Recurrent (ICAO) conducted an audit of the FAA as an ICAO member Passengers with Disability. state, and presented a Corrective Action Plan relating to the fact that the "FAA does not regulate apron management ser- Operational/Task Training (Note: The FAA inspects and vices at aerodromes." The audit proposed the following cor- audits the completion of Operational/Task Training consid- rective actions: "1) Initiate an Airport Cooperative Research ering it mandated by the operator and therefore resulting in study of best practices for managing ramp safety; 2) Form a `mandated training'). Work Group with Airports, Air Traffic, Aviation Safety, and associations to study ramp safety; and 3) Review Work Group Ramp Safety--ramp markings, operation of motorized and research studies and determine next action" (ICAO 2007). vehicles, approaching an aircraft. These efforts are currently underway.