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30 CHAPTER SIX FUTURE TRENDS Current emerging and future trends gleaned from literature and Surface Radars/Multilateration/ADS-B industry research are included in this chapter. Areas discussed include technologies such as the FAA's Next Generation Air A number of commercial products exist that provide software Transportation System (NextGen) program and surface radar and hardware solutions to identify, track, or guide aircraft and multilateration systems; SMSs and the FAA Notice of and/or vehicles on the ground. These products offer visual and Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) for SMSs; the FAA's recent electronic alerts to airside operations using radar and transpon- NPRM regarding Safety Enhancements for Part 139 Certifica- der technologies such as multilateration or ADS-B. Multi- tion of Airports; the ISAGO program; use of ramp towers to lateration is "the process of locating an object by accurately control aircraft in gate areas; and changing business relation- computing the time difference of arrival (TDOA) of a signal ships such as airports managing ground services. emitted from that object to three or more receivers using satel- lite and radars" (Wikipedia 2010). TECHNOLOGIES ADS-B uses Global Positioning System signals along with aircraft avionics to transmit the aircraft's location to ground NextGen receivers. The ground receivers then transmit that information NextGen is a comprehensive program led by the FAA that will to controller screens and cockpit displays on aircraft equipped modernize the National Airspace System (NAS) through new with ADS-B avionics. The ADS-B technology can also be used technologies, processes, and collaborations. The project is on vehicles in a similar manner (Takemoto and Jones 2010). scheduled to be completed by 2025 and is currently underway. The companies listed in Table 19 are currently using these According to the FAA, many NextGen operational capa- products to provide airports, airlines, and the FAA with solu- bilities will make the NAS safer. The Automatic Dependent tions to track aircraft and vehicles on the ramp for efficiency Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) will provide safety improve- and safety. Some of the software features include recording ments on the ground and advances in tracking operations and playing back events for investigational purposes, setting on airport surfaces will make runway incursions less likely. electronic boundaries to restrict vehicles from unauthorized Also, integrating Airport Surface Detection Equipment- areas, monitoring vehicle speeds, creating proximity alerts, Model X (ASDE-X) surface radar coverage with ADS-B and providing enhanced visual aids for Surface Movement surveillance of aircraft and ground vehicles will increase Guidance and Control System low-visibility conditions. situational awareness. RAMP TOWERS As mentioned previously, one of the NextGen initiatives is to leverage the existing ASDE-X system, installed at approx- Ramp towers are often managed by airlines, outsourced to imately 32 airports across the country, to extend coverage to third-party companies, or in some cases operated by airport or the ramp areas through a software tool called "Surface Man- county/city staff such as at Denver International. Ramp towers agement." ASDE-X is a ground radar system that allows FAA are typically responsible for aircraft movements conducted in air traffic controllers to see real-time positions and identifica- the non-movement or ramp area. Ramp tower controllers assist tion information of aircraft and vehicles on the airport surface. with traffic sequencing, separation, pushback, gate arrivals By extending the Surface Management System to the ramp and departures, and coordination with the FAA's Air Traffic areas, the air traffic controllers and airport operators are able Control Tower ground controller. to track aircraft and vehicles from the movement area into the ramp area and to the gate. In 2009, the John F. Kennedy Inter- Ramp tower structures vary widely and can include control national Airport (JFK), FAA, and Port Authority of New York tower-like facilities such as the US Airways Terminal One and New Jersey extended ASDE-X coverage into JFK ramp Ramp Control Tower at Philadelphia International Airport, areas to provide surface surveillance data. The data are shared which offers a 207-foot view of the ramp and gate areas. Other by the FAA, airport, and airlines to provide a comprehensive ramp towers are operated from terminal rooms with window view of the airports operations. views of the ramp and gate areas.