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31 TABLE 19 SURFACE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PRODUCTS Company Product(s) Website Brief Description Advanced Aviation DSMR-800 http://www.aatl.net/ Surface movement radars using Technology Ltd. products/radar.htm millimetric radars for tracking surface movement operations including runway/taxiway incursion detection, critical area penetration monitoring, and conflict alerts ID Systems AvRamp http://www.id-systems. Wireless Vehicle Management System SafeNavTM com/industry-solutions/ and Airport Vehicle Navigation and aviation/ Runway Incursion Avoidance System products that manage airside vehicle tracking and situational awareness PASSUR PortalTM http://www.passur.com/ A variety of products for airport Aerospace inSightTM products-for-airports.htm operations including airspace activity, OPSnetTM arrival and departure rates, real-time FlightPerformTM runway configurations, vectors, miles-in- trail, detailed flight trajectory and traffic flows, and NOTAMS/Field Condition Reporting Safegate Group Safedock http://www.safegate.com System that provides aircraft guidance on /home/safegate-solutions/ the ground through the use of an the-safegate-solutions/ electronic docking system that guides docking-gs pilots into gate areas by aircraft equipment type Sensis Corporation Airport Surface http://sensis.com/ Various real-time FAA and commercial Detection products-by-solution.php surface management system products Equipment, using a multilateration (MLAT) Model X surveillance infrastructure to manage (ASDE-X) movement and non-movement areas Aerobahn through visual identification of aircraft and vehicles, including recording and replay features for accident/incident investigations SRA International MSS--MLAT http://www.sra.com/air- Hardware and software aircraft tracking Inc./ERA and ADS-B traffic-management/ system using multilateration (MLAT) for solutions/index.php surface management and control. Ground Surveillance vehicle tracking using ADS-B Squad--Vehicle broadcasting for Advanced Surface Tracking Movement Guidance and Control Systems. Source: See web link for each product. NOTAM = Notice to Airmen; ADS-B = Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast. Ramp towers are typically installed to increase efficien- Research conducted online and through industry organi- cies and safety through communication with pilots and over- zation information resulted in a partial list of ramp tower sight of the ramp and gate areas. Using radio communication operations at U.S. airports and is presented in Table 20. The and visual tools such as video cameras and surface manage- list is intended to demonstrate the variety and diversity of ramp ment software provides an additional level of aircraft separa- tower operators, not to serve as a comprehensive list of all tion and control on the ramp. Although limited industry data ramp tower operations in the United States. exist to reflect a decrease in ramp incidents and accidents through the installation of ramp towers, a report by the U.S. GAO on Aviation Runway and Ramp Safety indicates that SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS when asking experts to provide their views on safety-related industry efforts, they suggested that the most effective ones On October 7, 2010, the FAA released a NPRM through were being taken mainly by airlines; for example, by setting the Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 194 (Docket No. FAA- safety targets and using ramp towers. Of 15 U.S. GAO sur- 2010-0997; Notice No. 10-14 RIN 2120-AJ38) entitled vey respondents, 2 experts indicated that airports' use of ramp "Safety Management System for Certificated Airports." towers was "very or extremely effective in addressing ramp The NPRM proposed that all CFR 14 Part 139 certificated accidents, and 3 stated that airlines' use of ramp towers was airports establish a SMS "for its entire airfield environment very effective. One expert said that ramp towers improve oper- (including movement and non-movement areas) to improve ational safety but that all operations are still not completely safety at airports hosting air carrier operations" (Federal visible" (Dillingham 2007). Register 2010a).

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32 TABLE 20 PARTIAL LIST OF RAMP TOWER OPERATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES Airport Name Airport Operated by ChicagoOHare ORD Si gnature, United Cleveland Hopkins International CLE Continental Dallas Fort Worth DFW American Denver International DIA City and County of Denver, United Detroit Metro DTW Northwest, Delta John F. Kennedy International JFK Airport Operated, JetBlue, LaGuardia LGA American, United, Delta, US Airways Los Angeles International. LAX United, Delta, American, Alaska Miami International MIA American Airlines Philadelphia International PHL Airport Operated, US Airways, San Francisco International SFO Airport Group International (AGI) SeattleTacoma International SEA Robinson Aviation Inc. (RVA) Source: Internet research and airport website information. The FAA further stated that "the proposal extends the lic comments, may or may not include the proposed changes scope of Part 139 by including the non-movement areas, to ramp oversight. but the FAA has concluded that ensuring safety in air trans- portation requires that an SMS applies to any place that On February 1, 2011, the FAA released a NPRM through affects safety during aircraft operations" (Federal Register the Federal Register, Vol. 76, No. 21 (Docket No. FAA-2010- 2010b). 0247; Notice No. 11-01 RIN 2120-AJ70) entitled "Safety Enhancement Part 139, Certification of Airports." The NPRM According to the FAA's Advisory Circular 150/5200-37, proposes that all CFR 14 Part 139 certificated airports "estab- "Introduction to Safety Management Systems for Airport lish minimum standards for training of personnel who access Operators," an SMS is defined as "The formal, top-down the airport non-movement area (ramp and apron) to help business-like approach to managing safety risk. It includes sys- prevent accidents and incidents in that area." The NPRM tematic procedures, practices, and policies for the management provides guidance on program development, type and fre- of safety (including safety risk management, safety policy, quency of training, and reporting. As mentioned for the SMS safety assurance, and safety promotion)" (FAA 2007b). rule, the training NPRM does not reflect the final rulemaking and possible changes resulting from public and industry An SMS can be further defined as including the following comments could alter the current proposed requirements program elements: (Federal Register 2010b). 1--Safety Policy ISAGO Formal Policy Management and Staff Roles and Responsibilities IATA launched the IATA Safety Audit for Ground Operations Program Objectives and Goals. (ISAGO) program in February 2008 to provide standardized 2--Safety Risk Management auditing for GSPs. The program is designed much like the Hazard Identification IATA Operational Safety Audit program for airlines. A suc- Safety Risk Assessments cessful audit results in the GSP company name displayed on Safety Risk Mitigation, Monitoring, and Reporting. an IATA website registry, which allows airlines and airports 3--Safety Assurance to assess the company's ability to meet ISAGO standards. Quality Control--self-inspections ISAGO proposes that the audit function may offer safer ground Quality Assurance--program audits/evaluations. operations and improved quality standards through partic- 4--Safety Promotion ipation in the program. As of January 2011, only one GSP Training and Orientation located in the United States [SeattleTacoma International Data and Reporting/Communication Airport (Sea-Tac)] is listed on the registry (a total of 61 are Safety Culture. presented on the ISAGO website). The majority of ISAGO- registered companies are located in Europe, Asia, Africa, the The proposed changes to CFR 14 Part 139 certificated Middle East, and South America. Sea-Tac is requiring all airports regarding SMS could change the management of GSPs to complete audits by the end of 2011 to provide services the ramp area by formalizing the airport's responsibility for the at the airport. ISAGO may assist airports with the standardiza- non-movement area; however, the NPRM does not reflect tion and management of GSPs through their audit program; the final rulemaking. The future SMS program, which will be however, with few U.S. airports and GSPs participating at this finalized after review of industry, airport operators, and pub- time, the program may have difficulty gaining momentum.