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35 for safety and operational training. Some lease agreements the surveyed airports indicated that some form of regular allow for air carriers to use unique markings at the gate areas; safety meetings exist within their airport/tenant operations. A this practice assists with pilot and ground service crew famil- variety of formats and frequencies exist, but airports consis- iarity at the gate. Because one size does not fit all, the challenge tently responded that safety meetings focus on resolving relating to ramp management is difficult to resolve. Each avia- identified safety concerns. As a consistent practice, safety tion partner faces various safety and operational hurdles, and meetings appear to be a means to bridge airport, airline, and even with collaboration, communication, and standardization, GSP responsibilities at least with regard to resolving safety the ramp will remain complex and congested. hazards and associated risks. RAMP SAFETY TRAINING CURRENT GAPS Because no national or centralized incident and accident data Two identified gaps based on the synthesis study results repository exists, it is unclear whether changes to ramp pro- include the lack of mandatory safety committees with inte- grams such as increased training or improved situational grated aviation partner roles and the introduction of ramp awareness result in reduced incidents and accidents. Nonethe- standards for markings, operations, and associated operator cer- tifications. Both the Airport Operations Safety Panel (AOSP) less, based on the synthesis surveys and the review conducted, and ACI member surveys indicate that safety meetings can be additional training has been identified as a means to reduce vehicles to enhanced communication and resolution of safety accidents and incidents on the ramp. Surveyed airlines and issues. Formal safety reporting and review is recommended as GSPs presented additional or repeat training as one of the first part of the Safety Management System (SMS) and required in mitigations required for safety violators. OSHA's Voluntary Protection Program. If SMS programs are introduced and ultimately mandated by the FAA for all regu- The FAA's recent Notice of Proposed Rule Making lated aviation operations (such as airports and airlines), safety (NPRM) regarding airport oversight of ramp training (as part meetings would be expected as part of the SMS program. The of an airport's Part 139 certification program) may introduce AOSP panel and ACI members also recommend that ramp new opportunities for centralized training and trending of oversight be delegated to each airport and that ramp standards, training information; however, the challenges facing small audits, certifications, and enforcement policies be implemented airports to design, deploy, and manage recordkeeping require- and managed by airport operators. Airport staffing and bud- ments for such programs may be prohibitive. getary challenges associated with these proposed suggestions are not addressed in the survey results. DATA COLLECTION AND REPORTING FUTURE TRENDS With regard to data collection and reporting, the challenge to airports, airlines, and GSPs is to develop a method to share As the FAA's NextGen initiatives and other technical advance- safety data in a useful and purposeful way. Although the Air- ments continue to improve aviation technologies, airports may ports Council International (ACI) Apron Accident Survey benefit from solutions such as ground surface radars, Auto- compiles information from approximately 150 airport mem- matic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast, and collaborative bers, this airport-centric accident and incident information is data sharing. Aircraft movements on the ramp area including limited. Rarely do air carriers or GSPs report internal acci- near misses and incursion data can assist airports and airlines dents and incidents to airports. To understand the cause and with jointly mitigating facility or operational constraints. Air- effect of training, human factors, and types of training, a cen- ports' roles in offering ground support services are a future tralized database would greatly improve the ability to trend trend that may improve the integration of airport and ramp and track best practices. However, this goal could be difficult operation functions. The opportunity for an airport operator to given current airport/airline relationships, public disclosure understand challenges faced by GSPs may assist in bridging laws, and the competitive business of ground operations. gaps for improved collaboration and efficiencies. During the course of this ramp safety synthesis study and ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES survey effort, two NPRMs were introduced by the FAA. Each of the NPRMs proposes new regulatory programs to Airports, airlines, and GSPs support aviation businesses provide additional oversight of the ramp area. Docket No. through a collection of processes, training, and operations, yet FAA-2010-0997 introduces the SMS as a required airport at this time very few of these collective operations are shared. program and Docket No. FAA-2010-0247 proposes an air- Most of those airports responding to the synthesis survey indi- port non-movement area training program. Depending on the cated that relationships with tenants are typically managed final rulemaking outcome, these NPRMs could change the cur- through lease and license agreements, rules and regulations, rent structure of airport ramp operations, especially with regard safety violations and citations programs, and both formal and to the airport's roles and responsibilities in ramp safety and informal safety committee meetings. Sixty-two percent of oversight.