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36 GLOSSARY OF TERMS Above wing: Ground support services such as cabin clean- have AMASS (Airport Movement Area Safety System), ing and catering that take place above the wing. as well as other busy airports. ASDE-X enables air traffic Accident: FAA System Safety Definition: An unplanned controllers to detect potential runway conflicts by providing fortuitous event that results in harm; i.e., loss, fatality, detailed coverage of movement on runways and taxiways. injury, system loss. The specific type and level of harm must By collecting data from a variety of sources, ASDE-X is be defined; the worst case severity that can be expected able to track vehicles and aircraft on the airport movement as the result of the specific event under study. Various area and obtain identification information from aircraft contributory hazards can result in a single accident. transponders. Aircraft accident: An occurrence associated with the oper- Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS): A voluntary ation of an aircraft, which takes place between the time program administered by NASA that receives, processes, any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and analyzes reports of unsafe occurrences and hazardous and all such persons have disembarked, and in which any situations that are voluntarily submitted by pilots, air traf- person suffers death or serious injury, or in which the air- fic controllers, and others. Information collected by the craft suffers substantial damage. ASRS is used to identify hazards and safety discrepancies Aircraft damage: Any damage or adverse condition that in the National Airspace System. It is also used to formu- affects the structural strength, performance, or flight char- late policy and to strengthen the foundation of aviation acteristics of an aircraft or causes a delay in flight opera- human factors safety research. tions owing to repairs. Below wing: Ground support services such as fueling, bag- Aircraft operation: Operation of an aircraft with the intent gage handling, etc., that take place below the wing. of flight. Causes: Actions, omissions, events, conditions, or a combi- Air Operations Area (AOA): Any area of an airport used or nation thereof that lead to the accident or incident; also, intended to be used for landing, takeoff, or surface maneu- events that result in a hazard or failure. Causes can occur vering of aircraft. An air operations area includes such by themselves or in combinations. paved areas or unpaved areas that are used or intended to Circle of safety: At the gate or parking location, painted be used for the unobstructed movement of aircraft in addi- lines resembling an enlarged outline of an aircraft typi- tion to its associated runway, taxiways, or apron. cally define the circle of safety. Airport Movement Area (AMA): Controlled by the FAA's Common use or shared-use gates: Airlines share the use of Air Traffic organization; typically runways and taxiways. gates in coordination with airport management and other Airside: All activities that take place on the movement and air carriers providing services at the airport. non-movement areas of an airport (as compared with ter- Effect: The potential outcome or harm of the hazard if it minal or landside). occurs in the defined system state. Apron: The part of an airport, other than the maneuvering area Equipment damage: Any damage or adverse condition that intended to accommodate the loading and unloading of pas- limits or prevents the use of mobile aircraft handling equip- sengers and cargo; the refueling, servicing, maintenance, ment or requires repairs. and parking of aircraft; and any movement of aircraft, vehi- Exclusive use gates: Airlines lease airport gates for only cles, and pedestrians necessary for such purposes. Vehicles, their use. Typically, airports use preferential use gates at aircraft, and people using the apron are referred to as apron which airlines have preferred use, but if the airline is not traffic. Apron is typically used in Europe and in the United using the gate, other airlines can access the gate. States it is referred to as the "Ramp." Facility damage: Any damage or adverse condition that lim- ASDE-X: Airport Surface Detection Equipment, Model X its or prevents the use of a fixed aircraft handling facility (ASDE-X) is a sophisticated, airport surface detection tech- or requires repairs. nology. ASDE-X integrates data from a variety of sources, Finding: A condition, supported by objective evidence, which including radars and aircraft transponders, to give controllers demonstrates nonconformance with a specific standard. a more reliable view of airport operations. Controllers in the Foreign object debris/damage (FOD): Any object that tower see the aircraft on a continuously updated color dis- does not belong in or near airplanes and, as a result, can play map and are able to spot potential collisions. ASDE-X injure airport or airline personnel and damage airplanes. capabilities will be added to many of the sites that already Airports, airlines, and airport tenants can reduce this cost
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37 by taking steps to prevent airport FOD. FOD encompasses Jet bridge: A passenger loading bridge (also termed loading a wide range of material, including loose hardware, pave- bridge, aerobridge/airbridge, jetway, passenger walkway, ment fragments, catering supplies, building materials, rocks, or passenger boarding bridge) is an enclosed, movable pieces of luggage, and even wildlife. connector that extends from an airport terminal gate to an Ground incident: An occurrence not associated with the airplane, allowing passengers to board and disembark with- operation of an aircraft, causing injury that does not require out having to go outside. Depending on building design, professional medical attention, or minor damage to an air- sill heights, fueling positions, and operational requirements craft or other equipment. it may be fixed or movable, swinging radially or extending Ground operations: The department, company, or vendor in length. responsible for all ground (ramp) operations. Movement area: The runways, taxiways, and other areas of Ground Service Equipment (GSE): The support equip- an airport that are used for taxiing or hover taxiing, air ment found at an airport, usually on the ramp or the ser- taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft, exclusive of load- vicing area by the terminal. This equipment is used to ser- ing ramps and aircraft parking areas (14 CFR 139.3). vice the aircraft between flights. As its name implies, GSE NextGen: Next Generation Air Transportation System is an is there to support the operations of aircraft on the ground. FAA initiative to overhaul the national airspace system to The functions that this equipment plays generally involve make air travel more convenient and dependable, while ground power operations, aircraft mobility, and loading ensuring that flights are as safe, secure, and hassle-free as operations (for both cargo and passengers). possible. Ground Service Provider (GSP): Ground crew members Non-movement area: The non-movement area consists of include: aircraft gates, the terminal, cargo facilities, hardstands, · Airframe and power plant technicians taxi lanes, the perimeter roads, and the vehicle drive · Avionics technicians lanes. This area is also referred to as the ramp, apron, or · Baggage handlers tarmac. Both aircraft and ground vehicles move on the · Rampers (ramp workers) non-movement area. · Gate agents Obstacle free zone: The obstacle-free zone is a three- · Ticket agents dimensional volume of airspace set up to protect aircraft transitioning to and from the runway. · Passenger service agents (such as airline lounge Passenger loading bridge: See Jet bridge employees) Personal protective equipment (PPE): Equipment for pro- · Flight dispatchers. tecting the eyes, face, head, ears, extremities, protective Hazard: Any real or potential condition that can cause clothing, respiratory devices, and protective shields. injury, illness, or death to people; damage to or loss of a Preferential use gates: See Exclusive use gates. system, equipment, or property; or damage to the environ- Property damage: Any damage or adverse condition that ment. A hazard is a condition that is a prerequisite to an limits or prevents the use of a structure or building or that accident or incident. requires repairs. Human factors: Human factors involves gathering informa- Ramp: see Apron. tion about human abilities, limitations, and other charac- Risk: The composite of predicted severity and likelihood of teristics and applying it to tools, machines, systems, tasks, the potential effect of a hazard in the worst credible system jobs, and environments to produce safe, comfortable, and state. Types of risk include: effective human use. In aviation, human factors is the a. Identified risk: That risk that has been determined to exist study and application to better understand how humans using analytical tools. The time and costs of analysis can most safely and efficiently be integrated with the tech- efforts, the quality of the risk management program, and nology. That understanding is then translated into design, the state of the technology involved affect the amount of training, policies, or procedures to help humans perform risk that can be identified. better. b. Unidentified risk: That risk that has not yet been iden- Incident: "An occurrence other than an accident, associated tified. Some risk is not identifiable or measurable, but with the operation of an aircraft, which affects or could is no less important. Mishap investigations may reveal affect the safety of operations." some previously unidentified risks. Injury: Any condition that requires medical assistance, c. Total risk: The sum of identified and unidentified risk. including first aid. Ideally, identified risk will comprise the larger portion Injury (fatal): Any injury that results in death within 30 days of the two. of the incident/accident. d. Acceptable risk: The part of identified risk that is allowed Investigation: A process conducted for the purpose of acci- to persist after controls are applied. Risk can be deter- dent or incident prevention that includes the gathering and mined acceptable when further efforts to reduce it would analysis of information; the drawing of conclusions, includ- cause degradation of the probability of success of the ing the determination of causes and, when appropriate, the operation, or when a point of diminishing returns has making of safety recommendations. been reached.
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38 e. Unacceptable risk: The portion of identified risk that agement of safety. It also includes safety risk management, cannot be tolerated, but must be either eliminated or safety policy, safety assurance, and safety promotion. controlled. Tarmac: see Apron. f. Residual risk: The remaining safety risk that exists Unit load devices (ULDs): Standardized cargo container after all control techniques have been implemented or to enable individual pieces of cargo to be assembled into exhausted, and all controls have been verified. Only a standard-size unit to facilitate efficient loading and verified controls can be used for the assessment of unloading of aircraft having compatible handling and re- residual-safety risk. straint systems. ULDs are primarily used on wide body Root Cause Analysis: A systematic approach to identifying, aircraft. investigating, categorizing, and eliminating the root causes Work-related injury or illness: An injury or illness that is of safety-related incidents. caused by an event or exposure in the work environment Safety: A condition in which the risk of harm or damage is that either caused or contributed to the resulting condition limited to an acceptable level. or significantly aggravated a pre-existing injury or illness. Safety Management System (SMS): A formal, top-down Work relatedness is presumed for injuries and illnesses business-like approach to managing safety risk. It includes resulting from events or exposures occurring in the work systematic procedures, practices, and policies for the man- environment.