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58 APPENDIX C Interview Summaries Interviews were conducted with one representative from each a concern without fear of retribution. This program will industry group either in person or by phone. A summary of ans- be operational by the end of 2011. wers are provided here. 5. Would standards on the ramp (markings, operations, etc.) increase situational awareness? David Crowner, Manager, Airfield Operations Yes, if markings are consistent across airports, staff, pilots, SeattleTacoma International Airport (Sea-Tac) ramp workers, reduce the likelihood of errors. AC 5300-13 is a great example of standards for the movement area. An 1. What impact do you see the new proposed SMS Rule AC on non-movement area markings would benefit every- (NPRM) on the management of the ramp? one. For example if taxi lanes and taxiing routes are con- With the change in Part 139 to include SMS, the airport's sistent and take into account wingtip clearance and object role will be improved in its ability to provide ramp man- free areas, the risk of ramp area accidents is reduced. agement oversight. To date, the lack of regulatory admin- 6. What top three programs or activities would you recom- istration regarding the non-movement area has resulted mend to improve ramp safety? in an area that is not well controlled. SMS will create 1) Training at all levels. greater awareness, accountability, focus, budget, license, 2) Placing ramp safety in a realistic and relevant context and importance of the ramp area. The airport's role in man- through a change in culture and situational awareness aging the ramp will change the dynamics of ramp safety as a safeguard. and discussions regarding accidents, incidents, and hazard 3) Data sharing with tenants and the airport to more accu- identification and mitigation. rately trend issues and to resolve hazards before they 2. Should the airport take on the role of safety oversight of lead to accidents and incidents. the ramp? If not, who is best suited? These are actually two questions that should be answered Robert Royal, Director--Safety & Regulatory Compliance independently. With the introduction of SMS and inclu- Delta Airlines Global Services sion of the non-movement area, airports may not be ade- quately prepared today to provide the necessary oversight, 1. What impact do you see the new proposed SMS Rule but with time and training airports will have the staff and (NPRM) on the management of the ramp? capabilities to manage this area effectively. Authority over SMS has a potential of creating problems if each airport the ramp needs to be officially designated to airports to designs and develops different programs. Unless there are evolve and create a program that takes into consideration consistent guidelines or standards to create consistencies, tenants, staff, and operations. The most effective way to the SMS programs could lead to failures that would be reach this goal is to work with tenants in a collaborative and unfair to airports and carriers. productive way. The collective goal needs to be safety 2. Should the airport take on the role of safety oversight of while keeping in mind the costs of doing business. the ramp? If not, who is best suited? 3. How would airports and tenants work to improve safety The airport can play a role in ramp safety oversight, but on the ramp? it can't be without involvement from airline and ground Today the ramp is not under positive control (ATO), service providers. Each would have certain areas of respon- which makes operations on the ramp advisory. With a sibilities that would be developed collaboratively. This more rigorous management program such as SMS the air- would lead to a safer environment. port and tenants will have the opportunity to create a new 3. How would airports and tenants work to improve safety team of accountabilities at all levels. Today, Sea-Tac meets on the ramp? with tenants on a monthly basis to discuss ramp safety Airport and tenants would first need to define their mission issues, concerns, and hazards. The meeting is voluntary. or vision so collectively everyone would be able to work In the future, participation in such meetings would be man- toward a common goal and be accountable for individual datory where the team would communicate, coordinate, efforts. A set of standards and measurable objectives will cooperate, and collaborate to discuss issues, determine how determine that improvements are actually occurring. to resolve problems, mitigate hazards, and develop solu- 4. Explain your thoughts on additional safety training? What tions that are cost-effective and that most importantly types of training would be most effective? improve safety. At DGS we are implementing OSHA courses (10-hour and 4. Explain your thoughts on additional safety training? 40-hour depending on the staff). We believe that these What types of training would be most effective? courses increase safety awareness and understanding of One of the keys to understanding accidents and incidents hazard recognition. Typically staff doesn't know how to is root cause analysis. I think everyone can benefit from recognize and report hazards in the workplace; hazards like various levels of training in this area. Also, hazard aware- electrical problems or pot holes. Training staff how to ness training is important for all staff and tenants who become familiar with hazard identification leads to a safer work on the ramp and in the baggage area. The ability to work place so hazards can be mitigated before they lead identify a hazard or hazardous behavior to either self cor- to potential accidents or incidents. rect or report through management will increase the level 5. Would standards on the ramp (markings, operations, of safety on the ramp. Sea-Tac is currently developing a etc.) increase situational awareness? safety orientation training that will be incorporated into Standards would improve situational awareness if carri- our SITA training program. The orientation will provide ers would agree to a standard. Every carrier has a partic- basic safety tips, situational awareness, and how to report ular way of managing their ramp and their operations. It

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59 is unlikely all carriers will agree to a single way of oper- 3. How would airports and tenants work to improve safety ations. Regarding markings, if each airport designs mark- on the ramp? ings at their individual airport, then pilots and ramp crews Airports need to support the airlines and vice versa; air- will have to become familiar with each airport. Airports ports and tenants need to work together to resolve safety would benefit from a single standard for markings that issues as a team. For example, the drive lanes installed at would be developed and managed by the FAA. SEA took more time to get implemented than necessary. 6. What top three programs or activities would you recom- Instead of just safety meetings, there needs to be a work- mend to improve ramp safety? ing group with goals and objectives and identified proj- Only two were provided: ects to improve safety that includes tenants and airport 1) Improving driver training programs; at some airports representatives. For a successful safety program, there non-movement area driving is really brief and could be needs to be accountability and it will require everyone's improved to include situational awareness and hazard buy-in including employees, janitors, maintenance, etc. identification. The program can't be from the top down only, there needs 2) Hazard identification (see response to question #4) to be community buy-in, where everyone has say and ownership. Roy Tschumi--Field Director, Seattle 4. Explain your thoughts on additional safety training? Delta Airlines What types of training would be most effective? Additional safety training (as mentioned in question 1) 1. What impact do you see the new proposed SMS Rule should include basic ramp operations such as driving, (NPRM) on the management of the ramp? speed limits, reporting, and personal accountabilities and Generally there are potential issues with airports owning responsibilities for safety. safety training when each airline is responsible for their 5. Would standards on the ramp (markings, operations, own training and especially at Delta where we go beyond etc.) increase situational awareness? the requirements. What if safety training is not what air- Standards are an excellent tool for improving safety. lines want or require? Will the airport be able to capture When markings and signage are consistent it can increase all the various equipment types and carrier operations? awareness. But for example at Sea-Tac drive lanes are Airports should be responsible for basic safety training indicated on one area of the ramp but not consistently on and focus on the broad spectrum issues such as speeding, the other side of the ramp so drivers are not sure what is how to conform to drive lanes, and focus on airport rules the requirement and the lack of standards actually creates and regulations instead of carrier operations. hazards for the staff. So the recommendation would be to 2. Should the airport take on the role of safety oversight of make sure standards are applied throughout the ramp area the ramp? If not, who is best suited? consistently. If airports use a program like ISAGO to establish minimum 6. What top three programs or activities would you recom- standards and then require ramp operations to comply, that mend to improve ramp safety? will ensure a consistent oversight. Delta goes above and 1. Driver's safety training for all airside operations (move- beyond what is required. One of the questions to ask is how ment and non-movement). does an airport that has minimum experience in ramp oper- 2. Some type of program where when offenders are being ations take on the role as safety oversight? The safety over- ticketed the information needs to be shared with the sight needs to be a partnership between airports and airlines. tenant right away to collectively work on preventative Airlines are already being audited by the FAA through Part measures to stop the behavior. 121. The best approach would be something similar to the 3. Ramp tower involvement as a safety control to assess Air Transportation Oversight System (ATOS program); taxiing issues that often result (to staff and equipment) for an audit program to function. in jet blast exposure from aircraft.