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6 CHAPTER TWO RAMP OPERATIONS AND SAFETY Chapter two presents foundational information collected from Non-routine maintenance literature searches, synthesis study survey results, and inter- Cleaning of cockpit windows, wings, nacelles, and cabin views that relate to common practices used to manage ramp windows operations. Included are data from airports, airlines, and GSPs, Onboard servicing and collaborative efforts discovered or documented as part of Cleaning the study process such as FOD programs, safety meetings, Catering violation and citation programs, and training initiatives. In-flight entertainment Minor servicing of cabin fittings Alteration of seat configuration RAMP OPERATIONS External ramp equipment Passenger steps Airport ramps are typically small, noisy, and congested areas Catering loaders where departing and arriving aircraft are serviced by ramp Cargo loaders, mail and equipment loading. workers, including baggage handling, catering, and fueling personnel. Other staff present on ramps includes airport police A broad array of ground service contractual agreements and fire, emergency response and medic vehicles, FAA offi- exists including a large percentage of airlines that provide cials, airport operators, maintenance engineers, airline crew, support to their own and other airlines, GSPs that are out- and vendor and concessions personnel. The presence of a sourced to multiple airlines and offer comprehensive above large number of people utilizing equipment in a relatively and below wing services, specialized services such as fueling small area, often under considerable time pressure, creates an and catering, and airports that offer ground support services environment in which injuries and fatalities and aircraft and to their airline customers. This mix of service arrangements equipment damage can occur (Dillingham 2007). Typical can result in multiple providers operating at the same time at activities involved with the operation and servicing of air- an airline arrival or departure gate. craft on the ramp include cleaning, catering, refueling, bag- gage and cargo handling, toilet and potable water servicing, maintenance, and transport of passengers and crew onto and OUTSOURCING TREND off the aircraft (Health and Safety Executive 2000). Accord- As mentioned previously, approximately 50% of U.S. airlines ing to Airport Operations, ramp service types can be divided continue to perform a portion of their ground handling sup- into distinct areas as presented in the following list from Air- port services, although it appears the trend of outsourcing is port Operations (Ashford et al. 1996): increasing, which suggests that airlines may be reducing costs by contracting out ground handling services. Typically, the Ramp services cost savings for outsourcing are gained through leveraging Supervision staff and equipment across multiple airlines and by reducing Marshaling labor rates inherent in airline organizations (Grossman 2010). Start-up Moving and towing aircraft As part of the Ramp Safety Synthesis study, survey ques- Safety measures tions were submitted to airlines and ground handlers to collect On-ramp aircraft services information on ground service offerings. A limited number Repair of faults, fueling, wheel and tire check of responses were provided (four GSPs and six airlines, of Ground power supply which one airline included two respondents); however, as the Deicing, cooling, and heating survey data demonstrate in Table 2, airlines continue to Toilet servicing, potable water, de-mineralized water provide in-house services, especially in aircraft, cargo/mail, Routine maintenance passenger, and baggage handling; maintenance; and load *Passenger loading control. The majority of airlines surveyed indicated that fuel- (*The referenced list by Ashford et al. did not include passenger load- ing is outsourced more often (7 to 0) than any other service ing, which was added to provide a more comprehensive list of typical listed in the survey. The two responses of "both" reflect an ground services.) airline that provides in-house fueling at some locations and

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7 TABLE 2 AIRLINE IN-HOUSE (S) AND OUTSOURCED (O) GROUND HANDLING SERVICES "Other" Provided by Respondents GSE Equipment Maintenance Services Presented in Survey Aircraft Ground Movement Cargo and Mail Handling Small Package Handling Aircraft Maintenance Passenger Handling Baggage Handling Aircraft Handling Lav and Water Load Control Catering Fueling None *Respondents Airline 1 (Regional Airline) O S O S O O O S S S S Airline 2 S S S S S O O O S S Airline 3 (Regional Airline) S S S S S S O S S S O Airline 4 S S S S S O O O S S Airline 5 (same Airline as 7) S S S S S both both S S S Airline 6 O S S O S O O S S S Airline 7 (same Airline as 5) S S S S S both both S S S Total Count In-House (S) 5 7 6 6 6 1 0 5 7 0 7 1 0 Total Count Outsourced (O) 2 0 1 1 1 6 7 2 0 0 0 0 1 W hat types of ground support services does your airline provide ? Select all that apply." "What types of ground support services does your airline outsource (other companies provide services to your airline)? Select all that apply." S indicates in-house services, and O indicates outsourced services. *Airports that provide ground services were not surveyed for this question. outsources the operation at other airports. The next highest that responded "No" are regional airlines, which may reflect outsourced service was reported as catering (6 to 1), with one certain operational limitations, although no additional survey airline providing both in-house and outsourced catering and comments were provided to confirm this assumption. one airline providing only in-house catering. Generally air- lines surveyed demonstrated that some ground services are Of the four GSPs surveyed, one is a catering service and retained in-house and others are outsourced; none of the air- one a fueling company; the two remaining GSPs are large lines surveyed retain all ground services in-house nor do they national and international GSPs offering a variety of ground offer all ground services to other airlines. support services. Despite the small size of the survey group, responses regarding service offerings were compiled and are When asked "Does your Airline provide ground support presented in Table 3. As reflected in the survey responses, services to other airline customers?" five of the seven airline the caterer provides only catering services and the fueler pri- representatives surveyed indicated "Yes." The two airlines marily delivers fueling in addition to other services such as TABLE 3 GROUND SERVICE PROVIDER SERVICES "Other" Provided by Respondents Services Presented in Survey Aircraft Ground Movement Cargo and Mail Handling Aircraft Maintenance Passenger Handling Deicing/Anti-icing Baggage Handling Aircraft Handling Lav and Water Load Control GA Services Catering Fueling None Respondents GSP 1 (Caterer) S GSP 2 (Multiple Services) S S S S S S S S S GSP 3 (Fueler) S S S GSP 4 (Multiple Services) S S S S S S Total Count Services (S) 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 "What types of services does your company (GSP) provide? Select all that apply." S = Service.