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8 de-icing and GA support for private and commercial aircraft TABLE 4 for a fixed base operator (FBO). The two other GSPs offer AIRPORT OVERSIGHT OF RAMP AREAS similar services such as aircraft ground movement; aircraft, Only Common Use, Type Yes No PAX, or Taxi Lanes passenger, baggage, cargo, and mail handling; and lav and General Aviation 3 1 0 water. In some cases each GSP also provides load control and Large Hub 7 1 1 maintenance services. All four ground handlers responded to Medium Hub 5 0 1 the survey question: "Does your company provide services to Non Hub 4 0 0 Small Hub 6 0 0 more than one airline customer?" with an affirmative answer Count 25 2 2 "Yes--Nationally (at more than one airport) we provide ser- vices for multiple airlines." "Does your airport have any oversight or responsibility of the ramp/apron area including exclusive use space, passenger loading bridges, or ramps?" PAX = passenger. RAMP OVERSIGHT from survey respondents regarding types of services. For the According to the U.S. Government Accountability Office two airports that responded "No," no additional comments (GAO) report regarding Aviation Runway and Ramp were provided to clarify the answer. Comments included a Safety, the FAA's oversight of ramp areas is provided in- variety of ramp oversight configurations such as shared re- directly through its certification of airlines and airports pri- sponsibilities with airlines and oversight of GSE (typically pas- marily through 14 CFR Parts 119, 121, 135, and 139. Safety at senger loading bridges) and gate management. airports in the United States is a shared responsibility among the FAA, airlines, and airports. FAA air traffic controllers over- One of the challenges for standardization of the ramp area see activity in the movement areas--runways and taxiways-- is the practice of airports leasing gates to airline tenants. but airlines and airports provide primary safety oversight in the Typically, tenants have the authority to manage the gate area non-movement areas--ramps and gates (Dillingham 2007). in compliance with their company operations including mark- ings, equipment type and use, and marshalling practices. Of From the airports participating in the Ramp Safety Syn- the 29 airports replying to the synthesis survey, the largest thesis survey, the majority (25 of 29) responded "Yes" to percentage of gate operations (52%) included both common having oversight or responsibility of the ramp area, 2 (1 large and exclusive gate use, with 24% indicating all common use, hub and 1 GA airport) replied "No," and 2 replies indicated 10% all exclusive use, and 14% responding none or a single oversight of only common use, passenger loading bridges, gate (all 4 GA airports). Survey comments included clari- and taxi lanes. Table 4 presents a count by airport type and fication that at large airports some of the gates are airline ramp oversight responsibilities and Table 5 lists comments controlled and others are common use and managed by the TABLE 5 COMMENTS ON AIRPORT OVERSIGHT OF RAMP AREAS No. Type Response Comment 1 General Yes The ramp area is owned and operated by the airport. Aviation 2 General Yes We control all ramps/aprons and assign users to specific areas. Aviation 3 General No No comment provided. Aviation 4 Large Hub Yes On the common use gates, the airport has contracted out the responsibility of sweeping/maintaining the cleanliness of the ramp from the terminal building to the tug road. In one of our terminals we also have oversight of the apron entering the ramp. 5 Large Hub Yes The airport oversees the ramp area, most jet bridges, FBO, taxi lanes, cargo locations, etc. 6 Large Hub Yes Airport maintains the ramps and provides daily sweeping of the ramps. Airport maintains airport-owned jet bridges. 7 Large Hub No No comment provided. 8 Medium Hub Yes Ramp areas at concourse gate parking are common use; gate leases include hold room and loading bridge use only. 9 Medium Hub Yes The airport is responsible for all jetways and FOD control on the ramp. Each airline is responsible for their respective ramp markings. 10 Medium Hub Yes Jet bridges are owned and maintained by the county airport system, but used by airline personnel for de-boarding and boarding. 11 Non Hub Yes Insomuch as it is our property and not exclusive use space. Air Traffic Control controls taxi and airlines manage the gate areas. We maintain the jet bridges. Comments for: "Does your airport have any oversight or responsibility of the ramp/apron area including exclusive use space, passenger loading bridges, or ramps?"

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9 9 8 7 6 5 Count Both Types 4 All Exclusive 3 All Common 2 None / One gate 1 0 General Large Hub Medium Non Hub Small Hub Aviation Hub Gate Management by Airport Type FIGURE 2 Airport gate oversight. (Does your airport manage gates through common use or exclusive use agreements?) airport. Also, with regard to exclusive gate use, airport re- Airports were also surveyed as to whether ramp safety spondents indicated that airlines typically have preferential meetings occurred on a regular basis (Does your airport con- use but not necessarily exclusive use; exclusive use implies duct regular ramp safety meetings with tenants?). Of the the airline has the sole authority to operate the gate, whereas 29 airports that responded, 18 (62%) replied "Yes" and 11 preferential allows use of the gate by other air carriers if the (38%) replied "No." Most of the airports responding "No" preferred airline is not using the gate. See Figure 2 for a sum- that submitted comments stated that the meetings are not reg- mary of responses by airport type. ularly scheduled and other means and processes are in place to address ramp safety issues. Figure 3 presents responses by With regard to gate and ramp oversight, airports were airport type and additional clarification through comments is asked "Does your airport conduct safety inspections on the included in Table 7. ramp or in the baggage make-up areas?" The majority (66%) replied "Yes," 24% answered "No," and 10% responded Of the 18 airports replying "Yes" to regularly scheduled "Common use gates and baggage areas only." Comments safety meetings, 13 selected "monthly" (72%), 3 replied "quar- from respondents are presented in Table 6. terly" (17%), and 2 responded "other" (11%). See Figure 4 TABLE 6 COMMENTS ON SAFETY INSPECTIONS RAMP AND BAGGAGE MAKE-UP AREAS No. Type Comment 1 Medium Hub We have increased our efforts in this area. 2 Medium Hub Visual inspection of ramp areas. Bag make-up areas are currently transitioning from leased space (no operations inspections) to common use. 3 General We hope to institute an auditing system for 2011--"Inspect What You Expect." Aviation 4 General Ramp only as part of our on-going self-inspection program Aviation 5 Large Hub Airport operations inspect ramp areas every day, at least 3 times a day. Bag make-up areas are patrolled numerous times a day. Bag make-up areas are inspected at least once a day. 6 Non Hub Our self-inspection program includes operations personnel monitoring the condition of the airfield (including the ramp area) at least once daily. However, no safety-specific checklist exists beyond the self-inspection checklist. 7 Large Hub Constant surveillance by assigned airside staff as part of the Notice of Violation & Citation Program. We don't do daily or shift documented inspection reports for those areas. 8 Small Hub We inspect daily to ensure Part 139 standards are met. Comments for: "Does your airport conduct safety inspections on the ramp or in the baggage make-up areas?"

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10 9 8 7 6 5 Count 4 Yes 3 No 2 1 0 General Large Hub Medium Hub Non Hub Small Hub Aviation Ramp Safety Meetings by Type FIGURE 3 Ramp safety meetings. (Does your airport conduct regular ramp/apron safety meetings with tenants?) TABLE 7 COMMENTS ON SCHEDULED RAMP SAFETY MEETINGS BY AIRPORT TYPE No. Type Comment 1 General We do expect to start safety meetings with tenant/vendors starting January 2011. Aviation 2 Large Hub Meetings with the group the Aviation Safety Alliance; chaired by the airport operator. 3 Large Hub Airport Action Safety Team meets with all the ramp/apron tenants. 4 Large Hub Regular FOD prevention meetings 5 Large Hub Monthly Airport/Tenant's Safety Committee meeting is scheduled. 6 Medium Hub Monthly Tenant Safety Advisory Group facilitated by Airport Operations and Corporate Risk Management. 7 Medium Hub Airport has a standing safety committee made up of airline tenants that meet monthly. Ramp/apron meetings are held solely by airlines. 8 Non Hub Tenants are invited to airport safety meetings, as are all ramp departments. 9 Non Hub We have regular contact with local station managers/supervisors. However, we do hold annual winter operation safety meetings with all tenants. 10 Non Hub They are not always regular. 11 Small Hub We have many monthly meetings with tenants, none specifically for ramp/apron safety. However, safety concerns and issues are addressed at each of them, as needed. 12 Small Hub As an issue becomes apparent it is discussed at a monthly station manager meeting. Comments for: "Does your airport conduct regular ramp/apron safety meetings with tenants?" 7 6 5 4 Count Other 3 Quarterly 2 No Monthly 1 Response 0 General Large Hub Medium Hub Non Hub Small Hub Aviation Safety Meeting Frequency FIGURE 4 Safety meeting frequency. (If yes, how frequently are the ramp/apron safety meetings held?)