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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 29 Sponsored by Ramp Safety Practices the Federal Aviation Administration A Synthesis of Airport Practice
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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS JAMES WILDING Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Metropolitan Washington Airports Vice Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Authority (retired) Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS VICE CHAIR J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY JEFF HAMIEL DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern MinneapolisSt. Paul Corporation, Norfolk, VA Metropolitan Airports Commission WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles MEMBERS EUGENE A. CONTI, JR., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh JAMES CRITES JAMES M. CRITES, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International DallasFt. Worth International Airport Airport, TX RICHARD DE NEUFVILLE PAULA J. HAMMOND, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia MICHAEL W. HANCOCK, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Massachusetts Institute of Technology ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE MICHAEL P. LEWIS, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Unison Consulting SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City JOHN K. DUVAL MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Austin Commercial, LP Arlington KITTY FREIDHEIM TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Freidheim Consulting Mandeville, LA STEVE GROSSMAN STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Jacksonville Aviation Authority HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO TOM JENSEN BEVERLY A. SCOTT, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, National Safe Skies Alliance Atlanta, GA CATHERINE M. LANG DAVID SELTZER, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Federal Aviation Administration LAWRENCE A. SELZER, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA GINA MARIE LINDSEY KUMARES C. SINHA, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, Los Angeles World Airports West Lafayette, IN CAROLYN MOTZ THOMAS K. SOREL, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Airport Design Consultants, Inc. DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, RICHARD TUCKER University of California, Davis Huntsville International Airport KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing DOUGLAS W. STOTLAR, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI EX OFFICIO MEMBERS C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of PAULA P. HOCHSTETLER Texas, Austin Airport Consultants Council SABRINA JOHNSON EX OFFICIO MEMBERS U.S. Environmental Protection Agency PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT RICHARD MARCHI J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Airports Council International-- REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, North America Smyrna, GA LAURA MCKEE ANNE S. FERRO, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Air Transport Association of America LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S.DOT HENRY OGRODZINSKI JOHN T. GRAY, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, National Association of State Aviation Washington, DC JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Officials Transportation Officials, Washington, DC MELISSA SABATINE DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Executives WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. TARA O'TOOLE, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Transportation Research Board Security, Washington, DC ROBERT J. PAPP (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of SECRETARY Homeland Security, Washington, DC CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS CYNTHIA L. QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Transportation Research Board Administration, U.S.DOT PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC BARRY R. WALLERSTEIN, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of July 2011. *Membership as of June 2011.
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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 29 Ramp Safety Practices A Synthesis of Airport Practice CONSULTANTS JOANNE LANDRY Landry Consultants LLC Seattle, Washington and SHANE INGOLIA University of Southern Illinois Carbondale, Illinois S UBSCRIBER C ATEGORIES Aviation · Safety and Human Factors Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org
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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 29 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in Project 11-03, Topic S10-05 transportation of people and goods and in regional, national, and ISSN 1935-9187 international commerce. They are where the nation's aviation sys- ISBN 978-0-309-14353-0 tem connects with other modes of transportation and where federal Library of Congress Control Number 2011936875 responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and © 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common oper- ating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For and Transit Cooperative Research Program. The ACRP undertakes other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, maintenance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administra- NOTICE tion. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can coop- eratively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, Council. the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant indus- regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical try organizations such as the Airports Council International-North panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Execu- overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the tives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and sec- of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the retariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program spon- program sponsors. sor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of air- port professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research research organizations. Each of these participants has different Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' interests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the cooperative research effort. object of the report. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited period- ically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the Published reports of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, are available from: ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academys í p urposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
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ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research JULIE KENFIELD Programs Jacobs Engineering, Inc. MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS RANDALL P. BURDETTE SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF Virginia Department of Aviation STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies Unison Consulting, Inc. JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer LINDA HOWARD GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer Bastrop, Texas DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer ARLYN PURCELL DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor Port Authority of New York & New Jersey CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant BURR STEWART DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant Seattle, Washington DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate TOPIC PANEL FAA LIAISON RANDALL D. BERG, Salt Lake City Department of Airports PAUL DEVOTI THOMAS B. DUFFY, Safegate Airport Systems, Inc., Brooklyn Park, MN ACINORTH AMERICA LIAISON LYNDA FOLEY, Dallas Fort Worth International Airport A.J. MULDOON GREGORY B. HAUG, Bismarck Municipal Airport PAUL KHERA, Alaska DOT and Public Facilities, Juneau, AK AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION LIAISON ROBERT ROYAL, Delta Airlines Global Services, Atlanta, GA JOHN L. COLLINS SHAWN M. SCHROEDER, SpringfieldBranson National Airport, Springfield, MO TRB LIAISON CHUNYAN YU, Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, CHRISTINE GERENCHER Daytona Beach, FL BRUCE LANDRY, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) PATRICK ROGERS, Federal Aviation Administration, Atlanta, GA (Liaison) Cover figure: SeattleTacoma International Airport (Credit: Landry Consultants LLC Photographic Catalog).
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FOREWORD Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a conse- quence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, "Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis study is intended to inform airport operators, ground handlers, and airlines By Gail R. Staba about the current state of ground handling practices, focusing on safety measures and Senior Program Officer training. Transportation Information used in this study was acquired through a review of the literature and Research Board surveys of airport operators, airlines, and ground service providers. Joanne Landry, Landry Consultants LLC, Seattle, Washington, and Shane Ingolia, Uni- versity of Southern Illinois, Carbondale, Illinois, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.
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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 3 Project Objectives, 4 Study Elements, 4 Literature and Data Search, 4 Survey, 4 Interviews, 5 6 CHAPTER TWO RAMP OPERATIONS AND SAFETY Ramp Operations, 6 Outsourcing Trend, 6 Ramp Oversight, 8 Guides and Manuals, 11 Data Sources, 11 Accident and Incident Factors, 14 Safety Culture, 15 Costs of Accidents and Incidents, 15 17 CHAPTER THREE CURRENT PRACTICES IN RAMP SAFETY General, 17 Training Requirements, 17 Standardized Safety Training Program, 21 Examples of Standardized Safety Training, 22 23 CHAPTER FOUR DUTIES, ROLES, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND OVERSIGHT 26 CHAPTER FIVE TRENDS AND INDUSTRY REPORTS Industry Suggestions, 26 Study Findings and Industry Suggestions, 27 30 CHAPTER SIX FUTURE TRENDS Technologies, 30 Ramp Towers, 30 Safety Management Systems, 31 Airport Management of Ground Services, 33 34 CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS Survey Findings, 34 Ramp Operations, 34 Ramp Safety Training, 35 Data Collection and Reporting, 35 Roles and Responsibilities, 35
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Current Gaps, 35 Future Trends, 35 36 GLOSSARY OF TERMS 39 ACRONYMS 40 REFERENCES 41 BIBLIOGRAPHY 42 APPENDIX A WEB SURVEYS 57 APPENDIX B RESPONDENTS 58 APPENDIX C INTERVIEW SUMMARIES Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.