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23 Table 2.3. Capacity enhancement project types. Project Type Sample Project Types across Different Transportation Modes Physical Expanding marine terminals Infrastructure Increasing highway-lane width/adding highway capacity Redesigning interchanges or addressing localized bottlenecks Lengthening railway sidings Developing parallel lanes, tracks, or terminal slots Increasing the number or length of runways Productivity Operating longer combination vehicles or larger vessels Lengthening trains Reliability and Enhancing turn-outs and emergency pull-outs Density Implementing controls for vehicle separation, design, and channelization Using information services to reduce vehicle interactions, plan routing, and avoid congestion and incidents Improving incident management techniques Integration and Improving/streamlining logistics services Consolidation Improving efficiency of cross-modal transfers Ensuring interoperability of technology applications Developing shared-use corridors 2.4 Accounting for Different Costs, general, the types of benefits that are meaningful to these freight Benefits, and Impacts stakeholders can be summarized in two categories: cost factors, and benefit and other impact factors. The types of benefits received by different stakeholder groups also have been discussed in previous studies and research 1. Cost factors include efforts. However, many of these previous efforts tended to focus Facility capital costs, which tend to be dictated by site only on a handful of stakeholder and project types, typically location and design, as well as the partners involved in public-sector transportation planning agencies (DOTs, MPOs) the planning process; or a single carrier mode (such as benefits from Class I and short- Facility maintenance costs, or the ongoing costs of main- line freight railroads). It is important to identify benefits that are taining a facility to ensure safe operations and upkeep; and of concern to the broader set of freight stakeholders, including Operating costs, such as labor, fuel, and equipment infrastructure developers, investment bankers, industrial site costs, as well as the time lost to congestion or to the selection analysts, supply chain professionals, and others. In breakdown of efficient supply chains. Table 2.4. Project scales and sample project types. Project Scale Sample Projects Typical for Stakeholder Type Site and Local Roadway enhancement projects Enhanced signals or use of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Site access enhancements or operational improvements Warehouse/development center site development Terminal expansion at nonstrategic land, air, or marine ports Class I classification yard improvements Statewide and Regional Statewide or regional ITS projects Bottleneck alleviation projects Bridge safety or capacity enhancement projects Trade corridor improvement projects Multistate or National Projects to enhance capacity or throughput at strategic land, air, or marine ports that serve as key national entry points Class I railroad double-tracking projects

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24 2. Benefit and other impact factors include Although some benefits, such as safety, are likely to be con- Capacity, which includes alleviating the impact of high- sidered by all freight stakeholders, it is certainly the case that way and rail system bottlenecks, as well as the through- each stakeholder group will be interested primarily in just a put attainable on any transportation infrastructure or few benefits or impacts. The scale of the benefits or impacts facility access point; received by a particular freight investment strategy will likely Productivity, such as the ability to operate a supply be the determining factors as to whether a freight stakeholder chain from start to finish with maximum efficiency; chooses to participate in a freight investment strategy or not. Loss and damage, or maximizing the safety and security As shown in Table 2.5, the primary considerations for most of freight operations and movements to minimize loss freight stakeholder types can be summarized by about two to to the shipper, carrier, or community; four benefits. For example, although it is likely that a service Scheduling/reliability, or the ability to have predictable provider considers a wide range of variables when determin- and timely delivery of goods, allows for streamlined ing participation in a freight investment project, the ultimate inventories, less disruption in the manufacturing or decision generally is determined by the underlying impact on supply process, and a more efficient supply chain; operating costs and system capacity. Tax revenue, such as that received by new industrial It is important to note that government agencies can land development, distribution centers, or other freight- be considered as both an asset provider and holder of the intensive land uses; general public interest, and must make decisions that reflect Wider economic development, including increased regional mobility goals and the safety, security, and environ- jobs that result from a distribution center, transload, or mental concerns of the communities that the agency repre- intermodal facility, as well as the multiplier effects to sents. In addition, some benefits are felt by numerous regional economies; groups--for example, tax revenue impacts are created by both Safety, such as minimizing of impacts of freight land increased income to service carriers and additional income uses on neighboring communities, and the safe opera- generated to end users. Nevertheless, it is possible to general- tion of freight vehicles and facilities; and ize the primary benefits considered by each of the four freight Environmental quality, including mitigation of air or stakeholder types. water quality impacts, reduction of truck vehicle miles Understanding the benefits felt by each stakeholder group traveled (VMT), and noise or vibration reduction. has several practical applications. First, by understanding Table 2.5. Stakeholder types and benefits. Type of Beneficiary Asset Service End Other Benefit Category Provider Provider User Impacted Party Cost Factors Facility Capital Costs Facility Maintenance Costs Operating Costs Benefit and Other Impact Factors Capacity (Includes Bottleneck Congestion) Loss and Damage Scheduling and Reliability Business Productivity Tax Revenue Wider Economic Developments Safety Environmental Quality, Sustainability, or Energy Use Key: Less Important More Important