Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 693 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Attracting, Recruiting, and Retaining Skilled Staff for Transportation System Operations and Management

OCR for page R1
TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Consultant, Silver Spring, MD VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State DOT, Albany Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Michael P. Melaniphy, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of November 2011.

OCR for page R1
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 693 Attracting, Recruiting, and Retaining Skilled Staff for Transportation System Operations and Management Brian Cronin Lance Anderson Daniel Fien-Helfman Candace Cronin Allison Cook Mike Lodato ICF INTERNATIONAL Fairfax, VA Marie Venner VENNER CONSULTING, INC. Lakewood, CO Subscriber Categories Highways Administration and Management Education and Training Maintenance and Preservation Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org

OCR for page R1
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 693 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 20-86 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-21384-4 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2012930392 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 693 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christopher J. Hedges, Senior Program Officer Danna Powell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natassja Linzau, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 20-86 PANEL Area Twenty: Special Projects Greg M. Laragan, Idaho Transportation Department, Boise, ID (Chair) Lawrence H. Orcutt, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Chandra R. Bhat, University of Texas--Austin, Austin, TX Mark A. Gaines, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Patricia L. Lees, Metropolitan Community College, Kansas City, MO Diana L. Long, Nick J. Rahall, II Appalachian Transportation Institute, Huntington, WV Scott E. Nodes, Arizona DOT, Phoenix, AZ Thomas C. Werner, Bergmann Associates, Albany, NY Clark Martin, FHWA Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 20-86 by ICF International and Venner Consulting, Inc. ICF International was the contractor for this study, with Venner Consulting, Inc., providing additional research support and transportation expertise. We would like to extend a special thanks to members of the NCHRP Project 20-86 panel. Dr. Brian Cronin, Senior Manager in ICF's Applied Organizational Research group, was the Principal Investigator and Project Director. Dr. Lance Anderson, Vice President in ICF's Applied Organizational Research group, served as the project's Administrative Officer. The other authors of this report are Dr. Candace Cronin, Senior Manager; Dr. Mike Lodato, Senior Associate; Ms. Allison Cook, Associate and Ph.D. Candidate at Texas A&M University; Mr. Daniel Fien-Helfman, Analyst; and Ms. Marie Venner, of Venner Consulting, Inc.

OCR for page R1
FOREWORD By Christopher J. Hedges Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents guidance to help transportation agencies recruit and retain qualified professional staff in the Systems Operation and Management (SOM) area. It is based on an analysis of SOM career paths, skill requirements, and training needs to identify successful programs, state-of-the-art initiatives, and best industry practices. This report will be useful for all transportation professionals working in the SOM area and the Human Resources staff who address their personnel requirements. Transportation system operations and management (SOM) draws on the knowledge of many disciplines--including, for example, traffic engineering, intelligent transportation systems, maintenance, emergency response and incident management, performance mea- surement, and system planning--applied in a comprehensive approach to increase the effi- ciency and safety of the transportation system. SOM encompasses interactions among transportation modes and between the transportation system and other functions such as emergency management, public safety, and the concerns of the general public. State departments of transportation, metropolitan planning organizations, corridor coalitions, and other transportation agencies are being called on increasingly to expand their activities beyond the more traditional design and construction functions most closely asso- ciated with civil engineering to the broader and more diverse tasks of SOM. While many transportation agencies view SOM as an increasing priority, they are encountering a shortage of management, professional, and technical staff with appropriate skills and knowledge. Retirement of transportation practitioners will deplete the ranks of qualified transportation professionals. Many students emerging from currently available education programs lack the cross-disciplinary perspective and multi-disciplinary skills needed for SOM. The transportation agencies are coming to recognize the need to support development of the supply of SOM management, professional, and technical staff. Under NCHRP Project 20-86, a research team led by ICF International identified key workforce challenges for SOM staffing, and developed a series of eight workforce action plans. Each of the action plans addressed SOM workforce issues for various staff positions and career stages. Each of the plans includes a communications strategy, a list of additional resources, and examples of successful programs. Supplemental information is available on the TRB website. NCHRP Web-Only Document 182, which includes a set of tables showing SOM job categories, number of positions, and educational requirements for all 50 states, can be downloaded at http://www.trb.org/ Main/Blurbs/166342.aspx. An Executive Workbook provides a summary of the project results and recommendations for senior management personnel and is also available at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/166342.aspx.

OCR for page R1
CONTENTS 1 1. Overview of Project 1 2. Project Methodology 2 Task 1: Conduct Literature Review, Engage Leadership, and Determine SOM Staffing Estimates 5 Task 2: Identify Principal Pools of Potential Workers to Meet Forecasted SOM Needs 6 Task 3: Describe SOM Careers, Career Paths, and Attributes and Training Needed for Successful Performance of SOM Jobs 7 Task 4: Prepare Technical Memorandum 1 7 Task 5: Describe and Evaluate Current Practices in Transportation Agencies 7 Task 6: Identify Resources Available to Facilitate Attracting, Recruiting, Developing, and Retaining SOM Staff 8 Task 7: Develop Action Plan and Strategic Marketing Plan 8 Task 8: Present Key Findings and Recommendations 8 Task 9: Submit Final Report and Executive Workbook 8 3. Full Project Results 9 3.1 Key Workforce Challenges and Trends 14 3.2 Overview of SOM Career Field 18 3.3 Profile of the Existing SOM Workforce 21 3.4 Estimating Future SOM Workforce Needs 28 3.5 Principal Pools of Potential Workers to Meet Forecasted SOM Needs 41 3.6 Establishing SOM Career Paths 49 4. Full Introduction and Overview of Project Recommendations 49 4.1 Overview of Transportation Pipeline 50 4.2 Summary of the Materials Reviewed to Create Strategic Guidance 51 4.3 Introduction to the Strategic Action Plans 54 4.4 Recommendations and Strategic Action Plans for Each SOM Career Stage 59 5. Full SOM Workforce Action Plans 61 1. Implement Annual or Semi-Annual SOM Career Days 71 2. Develop SOM Curriculum Content for Related Higher Education Courses and Training Programs 81 3. Implement Student-Worker Internship Program with a Job Rotational Component 93 4. Implement Virtual Pre-Employment Realistic Job Preview Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

OCR for page R1
103 5. Institute Mentoring Program 115 6. Develop Employees and Maintain Employee Career Pathways 127 7. Implement SOM Succession Plans 137 8. Recruit from Non-Traditional Sources 146 6. Summary and Potential Future Research 153 Bibliography