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Action Plan for Recommendation #8 Recruit from Non-Traditional Sources Hyperlink to Exhibit 28: Overview of Strategic SOM Workforce Recommendations by Career Stage 137

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RECOMMENDATION #8 Recruit from Non-Traditional Sources Description: Create recruitment strategies that seek out Recommendation Highlights candidates from non-traditional sources to build a deep Target Career Stage: Mid-career staff, and diverse applicant pool. Non-traditional applicants, senior leaders, retirees such as retired military personnel, engineers from the Will help with Attraction and public sector, stay-at-home parents, minority group Recruitment members, ex-prisoners, retirees, and/or DOT Estimated Time to Implement: 03 employees from other agencies could prove to be an months excellent source for talent. These applicants often have Non-traditional applicants may hold a wealth of knowledge and a desire to return to the valuable knowledge about the agency or workforce in some fashion. In fact, some unemployed industry in general, and desire to keep individuals may be stay-at-home parents who left work working because they did not want a full-time job commitment Agencies should consider how to or older individuals, not yet of retirement age, who went leverage the experience and expertise of through a company downsizing and have difficulty non-traditional applicants while keeping finding subsequent work. Additionally, some retirees in mind they might not want to maintain include individuals who leave their jobs due to early a traditional work schedule buy-outs or government pension plans but still prefer to be working. Knowing what prompted candidates to initially leave the workforce can inform recruitment and offer solutions or arrangements that work for non-traditional employees who might be brought in part-time or benefit from flexible work arrangements. DOTs could consider how to leverage the experience and expertise of non- traditional applicants while keeping in mind that they might not want to maintain a traditional work schedule. When considering non-traditional sources, it is important to keep in mind that retired military personnel often show exemplary leadership skills based on the discipline and training they gained in the military. Rationale for Recommendation: In many cases, retirees possess specialized knowledge and unique experiences, as well as a historical perspective that are critical for efficient operation of the organization (Rothwell and Poduch, 2004). Interestingly, retirees often seek to return to the workforce after a short leave of absence. These retirees may be attracted to jobs that afford specific benefits or a desirable scheduling arrangement. Experienced individuals who have left the industry for other reasons may also have valued knowledge and experiences. Costs (i.e., time, monetary) associated with onboarding and training are often reduced when hiring those who have previous experience in the field. 138

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RELEVANT POSITIONS TARGET AUDIENCES Source of Initiation Return on Investment Targeted Audience(s) Industry 0-2 years Primary: Depending on the type of job for which recruitment is Agency 3-5 years needed and the knowledge, skills, 6+ years and abilities required for those Primary Human Resource Focus jobs (see options under Estimated Time to implementation), various Attraction Implement audiences may be targeted to Recruitment 0-3 months identify candidates, such as Retention 3-6 months professional associations for Development 7 months-1 year specific fields, community or retiree associations, minority More than 1 year Implementation Level membership organizations, and National Action Lead(s) military groups. The target audience, such as professional Regional Agency HR Director associations, may be asked to State publish recruitment materials on their websites or in trade journals. 139

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IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Steps to Implement 1. Create a Committee. Create a committee composed of a senior leader from each business unit to discuss the development of a recruitment strategy that targets non-traditional sources of employees. Consider the unique challenges of each line of business prior to deciding whether specific flexible work arrangements or other benefits would work within those lines of business. Consider various flexible work arrangements, such as flextime, job-sharing, and reduced workloads, as options for adding flexibility to jobs in order to attract non-traditional employees. 2. Identify Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs). Identify the types of KSAs needed upon entry into the job. Review current job description if available. If no job description is available, defining the job is best accomplished by conducting a rigorous job analysis. 3. Convene a Recruitment Committee. Convene a recruitment committee including senior leaders from each line of business and the Human Resource (HR) department to identify key jobs and KSAs needed for those jobs. 4. Design Recruitment Strategy. Design a targeted recruitment strategy that identifies the candidates with the specific KSAs sought. 5. Identify Sources for Seeking Candidates Desired. Different sources can be considered depending on the type of non-traditional employees that have been identified as appropriate for the position. For example, when recruiting minority applicants it would be beneficial to coordinate with or join minority membership groups, such as the Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers. If recruiting stay-at-home parents, it would be valuable to identify daycare centers or parent groups where potential employees can be recruited. 6. Implement Recruitment Strategy through a Communications and Marketing Campaign. 7. Evaluate the Communications and Marketing Campaign's Impact on Recruitment Numbers. 8. Identify Rotational Activities. Identify informal rotational activities that can quickly educate candidates about different activities that may need to be performed. (Note: This is especially valuable for leadership roles where multiple lines of business may be supervised.) 140

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COMMUNICATIONS PLAN Communication/Outreach Strategies Identify sources for reaching specific candidates desired: Adult education centers, temporary agencies, day care centers, company retiree fairs, senior centers, civic groups, realtors with knowledge of people new to the area, minority associations, and even malls and libraries have been used to reach these prospective employees. There are multiple strategies for selecting sources for reaching specific candidates. For example: OPTION A: If the KSAs are rather general such as for an entry-level or non-trade- specific job, design a recruitment strategy to advertise jobs via newsletters, publications, and organizations available to non-traditional applicant sources. For example, trade or professional organizations, local social groups such as church groups or sports leagues, community events, senior centers, and retirement communities could prove to be a valuable source for candidates. OPTION B: Agencies that would like to recruit leadership and mission-oriented individuals may find success in focusing advertisements on military retirees and veterans. Advertisements could be posted in military retiree or veteran publications or newsletters from organizations with strong former military membership (e.g., the Military Officers Association of America's Website [http://www.moaa.org] where employers can post jobs targeting retired officers for free). Agencies may also find it valuable to recruit leadership via general, or non-transit-specific sources (e.g. newspapers, social websites, Chambers of Commerce, local management associations and groups, local business and industry, local or state government entities, and local or regional non-profit agencies). OPTION C: Agencies seeking more SOM-specific experience should design recruitment strategies specific to the desired skills areas, including considering recent retirees or individuals who have left the workforce for other reasons, who have desirable contributing skills and experience. Conduct research to identify the key motivators such as work-life benefits and messages that would attract non-traditional employees to come back to a working environment (e.g., extended leave/personal days, flexible work arrangements, job sharing). Ensure that these flexible work arrangements are highlighted when recruiting non- traditional employees. Allowing an employee to work the hours they choose (flextime), to split the job with another employee (job sharing), or to reduce the hours or tasks they are responsible for and be paid less accordingly (reduced workload) are all flexible work arrangements that may entice experienced employees to return to the workforce. Tailor marketing and recruitment materials to increase interest among target populations. The messages and photographs used in recruiting materials should incorporate non-traditional employees, such as minorities or older employees. Information about non-traditional employees should also be incorporated into company training literature and promotional literature in order 141

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to create the impression that non-traditional workers are valued employees. Perhaps the most critical consideration in the advertising process is the placement and modality of the advertisement. Examples of materials to be developed include: Develop messages about how certain populations fit within the agency. Using retirees and older workers as an example, messages could include: Our agency has retirees/more seasoned employees as managers, Our agency wants retirees to enrich our workforce, and Our agency values the insights and experiences of former retirees. Develop 30-second radio spots describing specific KSAs for candidates desired (e.g., use descriptions of example individuals who would do well in the job). Provide a realistic job preview of the work to be conducted and include information about the agency's culture (e.g., develop short video vignette testimonials from actual incumbents and disseminate through organization websites and social media venues). Create a group on LinkedIn and other professional networks. Develop newspaper ads, trade journals, blogs, or website postings for associations; the media type depends on the candidate population targeted. Sponsor career orientation activities for individuals from particular populations. This can help individuals understand how they would fit in a transit career. Host job fairs that target non-traditional employees. Consider the types of individuals present at career fairs. They should represent the demographic of the candidate being targeted. Partner with military and senior-related organizations, such as Military Officers Association of America, and hold job fairs for retired military personnel. Job fairs targeting seniors and retirees are also common throughout the United States, and are typically held by senior centers or organizations and community groups. Work with local community resources, such as the local Chamber of Commerce, trade or professional organizations, community events, daycare centers, or other local groups to spread the word about job fairs and available positions. Identify informal rotational activities that can quickly educate candidates about different activities that may need to be performed. (Note: This is especially valuable for leadership roles where multiple lines of business may be supervised.) Process for Obtaining Buy-In Develop access to communications staff to help prepare marketing materials that are specific to candidates targeted. Obtain memberships with associations that maintain directories with information on potential candidates. Provide validation of key messages and sound bites for these associations. 142

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USEFUL INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL RESOURCES To Implement Practice Identify HR staff proficient at designing targeted recruitment strategies. Contact individuals who are members of professional transportation associations. Solicit referrals from employees who are part of professional associations, community organizations, or retiree groups who may know qualified individuals. (Note: Referrals have been identified as one of the most effective means of recruitment.) Compile lists of recently retired staff and employees who left for family or personal reasons, especially those who are interested in further work, along with their expertise and key skill areas. To Sustain Practice Obtain buy-in and assistance from associations or senior groups (e.g., the HR staff from those groups) to help communicate with desired candidates. Develop social networking groups within the agency to help encourage and mentor employees according to their personal demographics and job requirements. EXAMPLES OF EFFECTIVE PROGRAMS California's Boomerang Program. The State of California's Boomerang program, launched in September of 2006, is a centralized database of retired state employees that have an interest in accepting temporary employment within a state agency as a retired state employee. The database allows retirees to detail their skills and areas of expertise and to determine how long they would like to be a part-time employee. State retirees can work for any state department and state departments can use the Boomerang program to identify potential applicants for retired civil servant employment opportunities. Contact information: California Boomerang Program, webtech@spb.ca.gov The Commonwealth Bank of Australia's Job Sharing Program. In order to show employees that their home lives and non-work responsibilities are valued, the Commonwealth Bank of Australia implemented a job sharing program. This program allows two employees to voluntarily fill the same position. Employees are asked to fill out an application form that includes the details about how sharing a job would work and who the job could be shared with. There is not a specific method by which the job is shared; it can differ based on what is best for the employees as well as the specific job being shared. Employees can share a job completely, without dividing duties, or there can be a specified set of duties that each employee is required to complete. The job sharing program has been shown to increase applicants and reduce turnover. It can also decrease overhead expenditures for the company because employees share work space but alternate days that they use it. This job sharing program is attractive to non-traditional employees who have important commitments outside of the workplace, such as working parents. 143

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Contact information: Commonwealth Bank of Australia, 1800-989-696, jobs@cba.com.au HomeBanc's Membership in Minority Community Associations. HomeBanc wanted to find qualified employees who were fluent in Spanish. In order to accomplish this, they joined minority community associations such as the Latin American Association of Atlanta and the National Society of Hispanic MBAs. By joining these organizations, HomeBanc is able to post job openings in the organization's newsletters and gain diversity in their recruiting efforts. Joining minority organizations is a cost-effective way for HomeBanc to target a specific population for recruitment purposes. Contact information: HomeBanc Human Resources, 813-228-8300, greatplacetowork@homebanc.com Commuter Rail Organization's Recruitment of High Potential Applicants. One commuter rail organization has developed a relationship with the military and a consulting firm to recruit high-potential applicants. The organization partners with a consulting firm to discover high- potential candidates retiring from the military. They work closely with a transition assistance program at one military base to recruit soldiers and officers who are completing their commitment. Along with the program, the organization provides coaching in basic interview skills and discusses how military experience can be translated to civilian work. In addition, the organization works with West Point, which holds employer panel discussions for its students. They also conduct mock interviews and discuss with the students how their military experience relates to positions in the organization. ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES Alternative Approach 1 Agencies that are uncomfortable recruiting and hiring non-traditional applicants could start with short-term hiring commitments. For example, hiring a part-time employee, temporary employee, or student intern with a non-transportation background can give the agency a better idea about how the knowledge, skills, and abilities of hires from non-transportation backgrounds can fit within the agency needs. Alternative Approach 2 Unemployment agencies are a valuable source for identifying previously employed candidates, who are currently unemployed, but may hold skills valuable to DOTs. Alternative Approach 3 DOTs may consider hiring recent retirees or unemployed individuals on a contract or part-time basis to access their skills. In some cases, DOTs have developed special programs for bringing retirees back into the fold, or at least capturing more of their knowledge and expertise. 144

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IMPACT Positive Outcomes of the Practice Increases the size and quality of the applicant pool by focusing on individuals who have experience, but do not want to work in a traditional job. Brings workers with valuable agency or industry knowledge and experience back into the workplace. Helps identify potential managers for transit systems through advertisements at job fairs, employment centers, workforce development programs, community bulletin boards, and local newspapers geared toward special populations (e.g., older individuals, stay-at-home parents) (KFH Group, Inc., 2008, TRB, 2008). Provides new solutions through non-traditional means; Wal-Mart has found success recruiting previously retired persons through AARP (Breaugh, 2008). Provides ongoing opportunities for mentoring. Mitigates the effect of Baby Boomer retirements. DOTs report that the anticipated Baby Boomer retirements have not been hitting them as expected, or with the negative impact previously expected, in part due to DOTs' readiness to re-hire--often part-time or on a contract basis--staff who have otherwise retired. CAUTIONARY CONSIDERATIONS Non-traditional employees may have specific work flexibility needs and not wish to return to full-time employment. This could be overcome by offering flexible work arrangements such as flextime or job-sharing. Individuals who have worked within a particular industry for most of their career may find it difficult to suddenly transition to a new industry. Providing comprehensive orientation to the industry or assigning mentors to help individuals learn about the industry could be beneficial for new employees experiencing a career transition. Some transportation systems have operated under a corporate culture that makes recruiting and hiring nontraditional employees difficult due to beliefs that managers must have specific experience. To combat this, it may be necessary to communicate with and educate current employees about the benefits that nontraditional employees can bring to the organization. Some agencies may have limited resources to train individuals without prior transportation experience. However, it may be possible for multiple agencies to pool resources in order to train new employees regarding general transportation-related issues. 145