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Architectural and Related Services Educational Programs. Exhibit 18 provides an overview of educational program trends in Architecture and Related Services. As depicted, Architecture and City/Urban, Community and Regional Planning, and Landscape Architecture programs have experienced substantial growth (>20%) between 2002 and 2007. This indicates that these programs will likely continue to produce graduates that can be recruited into SOM fields over the next decade. Exhibit 18 Architectural and Related Services Educational Program Trends 20022007 CIP 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Education Program Description Code Grads Grads Grads Grads Grads Grads 04.02 Architecture 140,393 149,045 167,381 170,106 176,617 184,934 04.03 City/Urban, Community and Regional Planning 34,487 43,152 49,853 55,157 59,306 60,911 04.04 Environmental Design/Architecture 15,773 17,043 14,106 15,431 17,241 15,850 04.06 Landscape Architecture 26,675 27,274 28,865 30,917 32,920 31,965 04.09 Architectural Technology/Technician (New) 0 115 101 144 294 539 3.6 ESTABLISHING SOM CAREER PATHS Results of our data collections indicate that there is uncertainty in the transportation industry about how individuals should advance in a SOM career. This can inhibit DOT staff from cross- training to enter the field and deter potential new, skilled employees from entering SOM jobs. We discovered that the biggest challenge or impediment to pursuing a career in SOM is that there are few clear or standard career paths for personnel. It is difficult for potential and existing staff to navigate the array of job titles within and across DOTs. Yet, because SOM personnel often have knowledge of multiple disciplines and an understanding of how SOM interacts with transportation modes, the public, and other transportation functions (e.g., emergency 41

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management, public safety), their skills are highly transferable across core functions so advancement within and across core functions is certainly attainable. To assist DOTs in creating standard SOM career paths for their agencies, we developed several generalized SOM career paths by analyzing the literature review findings, interview data, our compiled list of SOM job titles, and the staffing estimate data. Because of the lack of standardization across DOTs in terms of SOM department structures, we defined generalized SOM career paths that outline how individuals might progress through their SOM career in general. However, when implemented, each career path should and likely will be tailored to the individual needs of the host agency by internal staff. Generalized SOM Career Paths Exhibit 19, adapted from materials from NCHRP Project 20-77, provides a generalized summary of how individuals might advance in SOM careers within and across each of the five core functions of SOM. The horizontal arrows (i.e., Policy and Strategic Considerations Career Path, Program Planning Career Path, etc.) represent typical career growth for employees as they advance to higher organizational levels within one of the five core functions. In addition, since SOM personnel often advance across core functions, the double arrows indicate career movement between core functions. For example, employees working within the Real-Time Operations core function may advance their career by moving within Real-Time Operations or by moving up into the Project Management, Systems Development, or Program Planning components of SOM. Movement across core functions is more common when additional training is provided. The grey shaded cells indicate that the core function typically does not have personnel working at the indicated organization level. As a result, the exhibit suggests that SOM applicants with minimal prior working experience, interested in beginning their career at the entry-level, are most likely going to start as a Transportation Management Center Technician or Field Technician within Real-Time Operations, and work their way up. On the other hand, applicants with graduate degrees, or who are more tenured employees with knowledge of the industry and experience in SOM are most likely to start at the mid- or project-related level. The exhibits that follow Exhibit 19 provide generalized career paths within each of the five core functional areas and indicate specific job titles that may be associated with each core function. (See Exhibits 20 through 24.) The career paths for each SOM core function are represented separately because the positions included within SOM are diverse and the typical career paths vary for each position, even within the specific core function. Thus, the exhibits provide a visual representation of the general movement between jobs for SOM personnel. Please note that although many of the SOM positions included in these exhibits require more than one (or all) of the core functions, we display them based on each position's primary core function. Additionally, it is important to be aware that these career paths only represent the generalized path we identified based on our analysis of data collected in Tasks 1 through 3. Thus, the career paths do not reflect all the possible ways for an employee to advance. Furthermore, since agencies range in size (i.e., number of employees) and have different demands, the path provided may not be consistent across all DOTs. 42

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Exhibit 19 Career Paths by Core Function and Organizational Levels Organizational Levels Transportation Management Senior Management Mid-Level or Project Related (HQ or Regional) Center Technician/Field Personnel Core Functions Program Planning and Central Office Regional Project Technical Operations Headquarters Management Managers Specialists Managers TMC (Inside) Field (Outside) Policy and Policy and Strategy Career Path Strategic Considerations Program Program Planning Career Path Planning Systems Systems Development Career Path Development Project PM Career Path PM Career Path Management Real-Time Operations Real-Time Operations Career Path 43

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Exhibit 20 represents the various common career paths for an SOM employee within the Policy and Strategic Considerations core function. The positions presented in this exhibit start at the mid-career level, suggesting that most employees probably have degrees or job experience when they enter the core function. Nevertheless, the arrows displayed in the exhibit indicate that there are numerous options for an employee to reach the higher senior management levels within Policy and Strategic Considerations. Exhibit 20 Policy and Strategic Considerations Core Function: Career Paths Senior Management Mid-Level or Project Related Section Head TMC/Field Director of Operations Systems ITS Branch Management Manager Traffic Operator Center Highway Safety Deputy Director Technical Director Support Chief Assistant Engineer Transportation Chief Director of Engineer Transportation Assistant State Bridge Operations Director of Maintenance Operations Engineer Transportation State Traffic Director Senior Engineer Transportation Engineer State Engineer 44

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Exhibit 21 presents the generalized career paths for an SOM employee within the Program Planning core function. The positions presented in this exhibit start at the level of Technician and Field Personnel and end with positions in senior management. This suggests that an advanced degree is not required to start, but that training and years of experience can lead into a specialist position at the mid-career level, and Chief Planner at the senior level. On the other hand, employees with an engineering degree are likely to enter as a Technical Engineer or State Engineer, and can advance to Division Chief of Operations and Management or Assistant Engineer at the senior level. Exhibit 21 Program Planning Core Function: Career Paths Transportation Management Senior Management Mid-Level or Project Related Center Technician/Field Personnel Traffic Data Analyst Transportation Chief Planner Specialist Transportation Data Analyst Division Chief of Operations Transportation and Technical Management Engineer Transportation Planning Assistant Assistant State Engineer District Engineer 45

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Exhibit 22 represents the generalized career paths for an SOM employee within the Systems Development core function. Employees beginning their career at the entry level in Systems Development typically start as an Electrical Mechanic, Traffic Systems Technician 1, or Engineering Technician 1. While the Engineering Technician has a clearly defined career path to the senior level, the career path shown for the Electrical Mechanic and Traffic Systems Technician ends at the mid-level. As a result, once an employee reaches Implementation Support or IT Section Leader he/she probably needs to retrain to one of the other core functions to advance their career within SOM. Exhibit 22 Systems Development Core Function: Career Paths Senior Transportation Management Management Mid-Level or Project Related Center Technician/Field Personnel Electronics Electrical Supervisor Mechanic Implementation Support Traffic Traffic Technician Systems Systems Technician Technician I Civil ITS Section Engineer Leader Project Development Director of Engineer Traffic and Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Safety Technician Technician Technician Technician Technician Safety V IV III II I Specialist 46

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Exhibit 23 represents a general career path for an SOM employee within the Project Management core function. The positions presented in this exhibit start at the mid-career level, suggesting that employment in Project Management, SOM, requires an advanced degree, or certificate. Employees beginning their career in Project Management typically start as a Traffic Operations Engineer or Transportation Engineer. Employees with a certificate in Project Management, in addition to the advanced degree, may be eligible to start as an ITS Project Manager. Exhibit 23 Project Management Core Function: Career Paths Senior Management Mid-Level or Project Related ITS Project Manager Senior Transportation Operations Traffic Project Manager Manager Operations Engineer Transportation Transportation Engineer Engineer Supervisor/Manager 47

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Exhibit 24 represents the common positions included in, and the typical career paths for an SOM employee within, the Real-Time Operations core function. The majority of the positions presented in this exhibit are at the entry level (i.e., Technical and Field). This suggests that employees entering this core function in the Technical or Field positions generally do not need an advanced degree, and may not need a Bachelor's. Nevertheless, the arrows displayed in the exhibit indicate that there are numerous options for an employee to reach the mid-level or project related positions, and continue their career advancement to the senior level. Exhibit 24 Real-Time Operations Core Function: Career Paths Senior Management Mid-Level or Project Related Transportation Management Center Technician/Field Personnel Communications Operator Communications Communications Operator Trainee Officer Communications Systems Transportation Assistant District Technician Engineer I Traffic Engineer Assistant Engineer Junior Engineer Signal & Lighting Senior Traffic Technician State Traffic Signals Technician Engineer Traffic Systems Traffic Operations Engineer Technician Traffic Operator Incident Response Center Manager Coordinator Traffic Incident Manager Traffic Operator Assistant District Traffic Incident Maintenance Technician Engineer Maintenance Highway Supervisor Maintenance State Maintenance Worker Transportation Engineer Work Zone Maintenance Manager Technician 48