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careers were identified, a similar approach of identifying patterns across the JDs was used to create an exhaustive list of viable KSAOs for each of the job titles. In addition, we utilized the principles of Future-Oriented Job Analysis to identify KSAOs which will be needed to perform the duties of transportation managers in the future (Landis, Fogli, and Goldberg, 1998).1 To verify that the identified KSAOs link back to the fundamental requirements of the SOM jobs, we convened our project team to provide linkage ratings between the KSAOs and job duties identified for each of the SOM jobs of interest to determine which KSAOs are critical to the job. As a final step in this subtask, we clustered the KSAOs into broader competencies which will allow for comparison across SOM jobs and between jobs that feed into the SOM career. Task 4: Prepare Technical Memorandum 1 To fulfill the requirements of Task 4, we provided the NCHRP project panel with a comprehensive Technical Memorandum describing our methodology and results from Tasks 1 through 3. Based on panel feedback, we refined the memorandum and planned for the second phase of the project. The revised report served as the foundation for the research conducted in project Tasks 5 through 7. Task 5: Describe and Evaluate Current Practices in Transportation Agencies In this key task, we conducted a thorough assessment of current human resource (HR) practices used by transportation agencies to attract, recruit, develop, and retain SOM staff. Specifically, we collected data on practices such as strategic recruitment, professional development and training, compensation and benefits programs, outsourcing policies, and other programs that directly impact key organizational outcomes (e.g., satisfaction, turnover for SOM). Results of this task informed our SOM workforce recommendations and related action plans. Task 6: Identify Resources Available to Facilitate Attracting, Recruiting, Developing, and Retaining SOM Staff Our research team captured a comprehensive set of effective practices and resources related to the recruitment, development, and retention of SOM jobs. Results of this task allowed our team 1 Job analysis is often described as the cornerstone of successful employee selection efforts and performance management initiatives. A job analysis involves the systematic collection of information about a job. Job-analytic methods are often described as belonging to one of two approaches. One approach, the task-oriented job analysis, involves an examination of the duties, tasks, and/or competencies required by a job. The second approach, a worker- oriented job analysis, involves an exam ination of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required to successfully perform the work. Various adaptations of job-analytic methods include competency modeling, which examines large groups of duties and tasks related to a common goal or process; and practice analysis, which examines the way work is performed in an occupation across jobs. Future-oriented job analysis, (also known as strategic job analysis) involves analysis of jobs that will exist in the future or that will be changed drastically as a result of reorganization or other change efforts. The approach for analyzing jobs of the future can briefly be summarized in the following steps: (1) Analyze the current job to identify current tasks and KSAs. (2) Assemble SMEs who are knowledgeable about the future job to discuss how future issues are likely to affect the job. Collect information from these individuals concerning expected job changes. (3) Identify differences between the job as it currently exists and the job of the future. Isolate those tasks and KSAs where the greatest change is expected. 7