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31 entrepreneurial spirit--always looking for new partners, common sense version that folds the data into a set of new service, and diverse funding sources. They manage ideas about "the way things ought to be." Stories are often set up as myths, history or values when they may their transit systems like a business. An interesting attri- only be organizing systems for understanding reality. bute found in the previous case studies was that when Leaders must be able to tell the "new story" if they asked about barriers they encountered, all said there were expect their staff, constituency or client to accept their no real barriers. One manager in a case study conducted leadership or their product. through TCRP Report 70 stated, "I am my own barrier." This was echoed by this selection of case studies, with few Each of the transit managers interviewed had a clear barriers noted. vision and a message or "story" to communicate to their board, staff, and political, business, and community lead- The innovative attributes and ranking discussed in the ers. They have mastered the skill and art of communication, case studies is a first step toward measuring a system's inno- which is a great part of their success. vative/entrepreneurial spirit. Transit agencies can "score" themselves using the following criteria: AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 1. Serving as community agents of change, The synthesis case studies placed an emphasis on innova- 2. Optimizing rural resources, tive and/or entrepreneurial spirit and an organization's abil- ity to reinvent itself. Once the organization reinvents itself, 3. Embracing technology, innovation and change can occur as needed. It may be in the culture of change and innovation where future study in the 4. Acting as entrepreneurs, area of innovation could take place. Focusing on the innova- tor and the conditions required for innovation is important. 5. Providing effective service, and Further study can explore the attributes of an innovator and entrepreneur, how organizations are aligned, management 6. Maintaining fiscal diversity. and staff characteristics, and political issues. In addition, the transferability of an approach, succession planning to main- Communicating the Vision tain the culture, branding and visibility, and other factors that can help a reader build this sort of organization might The material reviewed for this report included a number be explored as well. of publications related to change and innovation both indi- vidually and organizationally. These publications are well As stated previously, it should make no difference whether documented in TCRP Report 70. One outstanding example a good idea is innovative or copied from elsewhere; a suc- of how change happens was articulated by Jennifer James cessful practice is a successful practice. Successful practices in her book Thinking in the Future Tense--A Workout for do not typically occur in isolated cases. There is value to a the Mind. Among many other lessons, she describes the new successful practices guide to highlight operational and need to clearly communicate the vision, the spirit, and the service design issues. Areas such as coordination and tech- intent of change: nology, although important, have been studied extensively through previous TCRP and other research. An emphasis on One of the difficult aspects of change, particularly when it is accompanied by complex technology and operations and, most important, on route design (other than multiplying data sources, is the ability to give up an expensive paratransit) would have a beneficial impact on the old story and develop a new one. The "story" is a rural transit community.