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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 37A Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Guidebook for Measuring Performance of Automated People Mover Systems at Airports

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ACRP Oversight Committee* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2012 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Vice Chair: Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern (retired) Corporation, Norfolk, VA Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Vice CHAIR Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY William A.V. Clark, Professor of Geography and Professor of Statistics, Department of Geography, MEMBERS University of California, Los Angeles James Crites Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh DallasFort Worth International Airport James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Richard de Neufville Paula J. C. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Massachusetts Institute of Technology Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Kevin C. Dolliole Chris T. Hendrickson, Duquesne Light Professor of Engineering, Carnegie-Mellon University, Unison Consulting Pittsburgh, PA John K. Duval Adib K. Kanafani, Professor of the Graduate School, University of California, Berkeley Austin Commercial, LP Gary P. LaGrange, President and CEO, Port of New Orleans, LA Kitty Freidheim Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Freidheim Consulting Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Steve Grossman Jacksonville Aviation Authority Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State DOT, Albany Tom Jensen Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington National Safe Skies Alliance Neil J. Pedersen, Consultant, Silver Spring, MD Catherine M. Lang Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Federal Aviation Administration Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Gina Marie Lindsey Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Los Angeles World Airports David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Carolyn Motz Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, Airport Design Consultants, Inc. West Lafayette, IN Richard Tucker Huntsville International Airport Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute EX OFFICIO MEMBERS of Transportation Studies; and Acting Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Paula P. Hochstetler Airport Consultants Council Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Sabrina Johnson C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Airports Council International--North America Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Laura McKee Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Air Transport Association of America LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Interior, Washington, DC Melissa Sabatine John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, American Association of Airport Executives Washington, DC Robert E. Skinner, Jr. John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Transportation Research Board Officials, Washington, DC Michael P. Huerta, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY David T. Matsuda, Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Christopher W. Jenks Michael P. Melaniphy, President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of July 2011. *Membership as of February 2012.

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A I R P O R T c oop e rati v e R e s e ar c h P ro g ra m ACRP Report 37A Guidebook for Measuring Performance of Automated People Mover Systems at Airports Lea+Elliott, Inc. Dulles, VA with Watchung Transportation, LLC Westfield, NJ Subscriber Categories Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration T r a n s p o r tat i o n R e s e a r c h B o a r d Washington, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRPREPORT 37A Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans Project 03-07 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-21389-9 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon Library of Congress Control Number 2012931873 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera COPYRIGHT Information tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the un sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries derstanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, main tenance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Trans Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. port Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. they are considered essential to the object of the report. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the Published reports of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper Airport cooperative research program ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports Washington, DC 20001 for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other inter ested parties, and industry associations may arrange for workshops, and can be ordered through the Internet at training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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cooperative Research programs CRP STAFF for ACRP Report 37A Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Lawrence D. Goldstein, Senior Program Officer Tiana Barnes, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-07 Panel Field of Policy and Planning John Kapala, HartsfieldJackson Atlanta International Airport, College Park, GA William H. Leder, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI Tomas Rivera, DallasFort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX Michael Shumack, Greater Orlando Aviation Authority, Orlando, FL Gerald K. Winters, Markham, ON John G. Bell, FTA Liaison M. Ashraf Jan, FAA Liaison Gil Neumann, FAA Liaison Jennifer A. Rosales, TRB Liaison author ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 03-07, "A Guidebook for Measuring Performance of Automated People Mover Systems at Airports." Lea+Elliott, Inc., was the contractor for this study, with Watchung Transportation, LLC, as a subcontractor. Christopher M. Gambla, Senior Associate of Lea+Elliott, was the Project Manager and Princi pal Investigator. Jack Norton, President of Lea+Elliott, was the Principal-In-Charge. Other contribu tors to this report were Doug Draper, CAD Specialist of Lea+Elliott; Craig W. Elliott, Project Engineer of Lea+Elliott; Dennis M. Elliott, Principal of Lea+Elliott (retired); Jack E. Joy, Associate Principal of Lea+Elliott; Charlie Martin, Principal of Lea+Elliott (retired); Sophia Mucino, Technical Documenta tion Specialist of Lea+Elliott; Curtis Newton, Manager of Engineering Projects of Lea+Elliott; Melinda Ring, Manager of Planning Projects of Lea+Elliott; and Rongfang (Rachel) Liu, Principal of Watchung Transportation. The research team would like to express its gratitude to the members of the project panel for their support and insightful comments throughout this research project. The research team would also like to thank the many airport staff who took the time to accommodate tours for project staff; share their insights, experience, and opinions with the research team through survey participation; and respond to follow-up inquiries.

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F ORE W OR D By Lawrence D. Goldstein Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 37A is a guidebook for measuring performance of automated people mover (APM) systems at airports. This report, directed at airport owners and operators as well as owners and operators of APM systems, identifies, defines, and demonstrates application of a broad range of performance measures encompassing service availability, safety, operations and maintenance expense, capacity utilization, user satisfaction, and reliability. The guide book also identifies the data required to implement these performance measures, helping airport APM operators assess and improve performance over time, compare alternative APM systems, and plan and develop future APM systems. This report includes an appendix that documents the underlying historical research and describes the survey instrument and responses that provided information used to formulate specific performance measures. Also included in this volume, and available electronically on the ACRP Report 37A summary web page at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/166387.aspx, is a set of forms for periodically compiling the necessary data for input into the overall performance measurement process. Also available via the ACRP Report 37A summary web page is an interactive Excel model containing spreadsheets that can be used to track and calculate system-wide performance and service characteristics. This report is a companion to ACRP Report 37: Guidebook for Planning and Implementing Automated People Mover Systems at Airports. Together, these two volumes provide a com prehensive planning, development, operating and maintenance, and system performance manual that takes the user from initial planning and development steps through implemen tation, operation and maintenance, and overall performance monitoring and evaluation. Airport APM owners and operators, as well as airport owners, will find ACRP Report 37A of special interest. Typically, these parties view daily, monthly, and yearly performance measures of their APM systems in a framework within which only the system itself controls. Under this approach, delays that result from external causes, such as weather, passengers (holding doors, injuries/events on board trains, etc.), and other similar incidents beyond the control of the system are excluded from overall system evaluation. Excluding uncon trolled events artificially improves the performance of the APM on paper but does not represent what passengers actually experience when using the system. A good example is a significant snow event, where the airport APM may have shut down for half the operating day. Under current procedures, system availability would be reported as 100% for the entire day (assuming there were no delays during the time the system was operating) because the weather event was beyond the control of the system. A passenger, however, would not have reached the same conclusion. In contrast to this limited approach to performance evaluation, this report provides a comprehensive set of measures that describe the actual performance

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of airport APMs in the context of all events, regardless of the reason for those events. What is measured by applying these factors is the performance of the APM system from the passengers' perspective, which ultimately is who the APM serves. Applicability across a broad spectrum of airport systems requires flexibility in the actual measurement parameters. An example of how this flexibility is incorporated into the guide book is the proposed Service Availability measure. For this performance measure, three options are provided, allowing the Service Availability metric to be calculated using the method best suited to a particular airport APM system. In addition, because the seven per formance measures identified in the guidebook, by themselves, do not provide the whole story when comparing the performance of one airport APM to another, the guidebook identifies six system descriptive characteristics and five service descriptive characteristics to be reported along with the performance measures. These additional characteristics provide a context for the specific measures where there are differences caused by APM configuration, technology, or other design or operating characteristics. Taken together, ACRP Reports 37 and 37A serve as a comprehensive guide for use by the airport industry to provide a safe and efficient APM system as a function of specific airport design, capacity requirements, and operational characteristics. Once implemented, the performance measures presented in this guide can be used to oversee and improve sys tem performance in response to both industry and user needs and requirements.

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Contents 1Summary 4 Chapter 1Background 4 1.1Research Approach 6 Chapter 2Introduction 6 2.1Purpose 6 2.2Who Should Use This Guidebook? 6 2.3How to Use This Guidebook 7 2.4Other ACRP Reports 8 Chapter 3Transitioning from Apm Planning and Implementation to Apm Operations and Maintenance 8 3.1Recent Developments in Procuring Ongoing O&M Services 8 3.1.1Legal Precedents 9 3.1.2 O&M Contract Durations 10 3.1.3 O&M Contract Proposer Pool 10 3.2Procurement of O&M Services: Contractual Options 11 3.2.1 Option 1: Sole-Source Procurement of O&M Services 11 3.2.2 Option 2: Competitive Procurement of O&M Services 11 3.2.3 Option 3: In-Sourcing O&M Services to Airport Staff 12 3.2.4 Option 4: Competitive Procurement with Technical and Parts Support Sole Source Contract 12 3.3Measurement of O&M Procurement Methodology Criteria 13 3.3.1 Measurement Factor: Cost 14 3.3.2 Measurement Factor: Risk 16 3.3.3 Measurement Factor: Other 18 3.3.4Summary 19 3.4O&M Contract's Relationship to Performance Measurement 20 Chapter 4Performance Measurement of Apm Systems at Airports: The Current Situation 20 4.1Historical Performance Measurement of Apm Systems at Airports 20 4.1.1Applied Methods 22 4.1.2Theoretical Methods 23 4.2Characteristics of Effective Performance Measurement Systems for Apm Systems at Airports 24 Chapter 5Performance Measures for Apm Systems at Airports: Recommended Approach 24 5.1System Descriptive Characteristics 24 5.1.1 Single Lane Feet of Guideway, Mainline 24 5.1.2 Single Lane Feet of Guideway, Other 24 5.1.3 Routes Operated in Maximum Service

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25 5.1.4 Trip Time in Maximum Service 25 5.1.5Stations 25 5.1.6 Vehicles in Total Fleet 25 5.2Service Descriptive Characteristics 26 5.2.1Passenger Trips 26 5.2.2 Vehicle Service Miles 26 5.2.3 Vehicles Operated in Maximum Service 26 5.2.4 Vehicles Available for Maximum Service 27 5.2.5 Headway in Maximum Service 27 5.3Airport APM Performance Measures 27 5.3.1 Airport APM Performance Measure #1: Service Availability (Tier A Approach) 30 5.3.2 Airport APM Performance Measure #1: Service Availability (Tier B Approach) 34 5.3.3 Airport APM Performance Measure #1: Service Availability (Tier C Approach) 38 5.3.4 Airport APM Performance Measure #2: Safety Incidents per 1,000 Vehicle Service Miles 40 5.3.5 Airport APM Performance Measure #3: O&M Expense per Vehicle Service Mile 42 5.3.6 Airport APM Performance Measure #4: Actual and Scheduled Capacity (Peak Versus All Other) 44 5.3.7 Airport APM Performance Measure #5: Passenger Satisfaction 46 5.3.8 Airport APM Performance Measure #6: Missed Stations per 1,000 Station Stops 48 5.3.9 Airport APM Performance Measure #7: Unintended Stops per 1,000 Interstations 50 Chapter 6Other Airport APM System Performance Measures 50 6.1Internal Measures for Assessing and Improving Performance of Airport Apm Systems 51 6.2Measures for Planning and Designing Airport Apm Systems 52 Chapter 7Implementing an Airport APM Performance Measures Program 52 7.1Implementing an Airport APM Performance Measures Program for an Airport APM System 52 7.2Administrative and Funding Issues 53 7.3Airport Participation Issues 54 7.4Data Collection and Reporting Issues 55 7.5Conclusions 56Bibliography 57Acronyms and Abbreviations 58 Exhibit A Form A, Form B, and Passenger Satisfaction Survey 63 Appendix A