Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 101


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 100
100 NON-AIRPORT APM SYSTEM IDs 1 2 3 4 System Configuration Dual-lane shuttle Double Loop Double Single Pinched Dual-lane Pinched Loop loop loop loop shuttle Single Loop Total Fleet 40 35 30 25 20 15 29 12 5 2 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 APM Environment Indoors Outdoors Outdoors Outdoors Outdoors Outdoors System Operating Mode Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous Combined Combined Figure A-5. Non-airport APM systems characteristics #1. 5.2.3 O&M Cost Overall performance measures (including contractual per- formance measures), O&M costs were reported by eight of the 14 airport APM Safety and security performance measures, survey participants and ranged from $1.02M to $15.39M annu- Efficiency/effectiveness performance measures, ally. Although the survey requested specific breakdowns for cost Passenger experience performance measures, data, many properties reported rolled-up costs. Table A-9 shows Other performance measures, the annual O&M costs reported by the airport APM survey par- Grace periods, ticipants: Partial service, O&M costs were reported by two of the four non-airport Other data collected as performance measures, and APM survey participants. Annual O&M costs for the two Best performance measures from the passenger's per- non-airport APM systems that did not report such data were obtained from the National Transit Database. Table A-10 spective. shows the annual O&M costs for the non-airport APM sur- vey participants: The data show that availability is overwhelmingly the most common performance measure used to judge system perfor- mance, being used by 13 of the 14 airport APM systems and 5.2.4 Performance Measures by all four of the non-airport APM systems. Survey response data collected from the performance The data also reflect that grace periods and partial service measures section of the surveys are provided in Tables A-11 credit are used in determining availability for almost all of and A-12 for airport and non-airport APM survey partici- the airport APM systems but are much less prevalent for the pants, respectively, and categorized as follows: non-airport APM systems.

OCR for page 100
NON-AIRPORT APM SYSTEM IDs 1 2 3 4 Guideway Length (miles) and No. of Stations 25 20 15 10 9.03 miles 3.40 miles 2.80 miles 1.40 miles 5 21 stations 13 stations 8 stations 3 stations 0 1 2 3 4 Series 1 Series 2 Average Dwell Time (sec) 35 30 25 20 15 20 30 14 30 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 Propulsion System Supply Voltage and Current 600VAC 600VAC 600VAC 480VAC 480VAC 480VAC Vehicle Conveyance and Track Running Equipment Rubber tire on Rubber tire Steel wheel Rubber tire Rubber tire concrete on concrete on steel rail; on concrete; on concrete; Steel wheel on steel onboard linear induction linear induction onboard rail motor(s) motor(s) motor(s) motor(s) Figure A-6. Non-airport APM systems characteristics #2. NON-AIRPORT APM SYSTEM IDs 1 2 3 4 Operating Fleet Configuration Entrained Singles Mixed Entrained Singles Singles Mixed Daily Hours of Operation 24 hours per day 17 to 19 17 to 19 17 to 19 24 17 to 19 hours per day Peak Headway ( sec) 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 180 150 190 450 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 Figure A-7. Non-airport APM systems characteristics #3.

OCR for page 100
102 NON-AIRPOR RT APM SYSTEM IDs 1 2 3 4 Vehic cle Capacity (no o. of passenger rs per vehicle) 100 78 56 8 81 Line C Capacity (pphpd) Data missing 4,200 500 1,2 296 Annual Fleet Miles (2 2007) 934,906 692,309 252,94 44 63,931 Figure A-8. Non-airport APM systems characteristics #4. Table A-9. Airport APM systems annual O&M costs. Annual O&M Cost Airport APM FY 07/08 FY 06/07 Remarks System Budgeted Actual A $4.4M -- power not included B $10.93M $10.18M C $8.5M $8.0M D $2.23M $2.17M E $1.05M $1.02M F $1.81M $1.49M power not included G $2.01M $1.88M power not included H $15.39M $13.95M includes all O&M costs Table A-10. Non-airport APM systems annual O&M costs. Annual O&M Cost Non-Airport FY07/08 FY06/07 Remarks APM System Budgeted Actual A -- $4.61M includes all O&M costs B -- $21M includes all O&M costs C $19.04M $21.29M includes all O&M costs D -- $0.97M power not included

OCR for page 100
Table A-11. Airport APM systems performance measures.* AIRPORT APM SYSTEM IDs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Availability; days System System Reliability; System System System Reliability; Reliability; System System System System Overall performance measures availability without service availability availability availability availability; DT availability; DT maintainability; availability; DT availability; DT availability; DT maintainability; maintainability; interruption events events availability events events events availability availability OSHA Occurrences Employee and occurrences Safety tracked (safety) Occurrences Fires and injuries Emergency Occurrences Occurrences Emergency Occurrences Occurrences Safety and security performance measures -- and logged -- passenger logged tracked; Security tracked stops logged logged reported stops logged occurrences reported reported injuries occurrences monitored (security) logged Operating hours Operating miles/ Operating miles/ Pax/car-hour; KWH per System Cost per Efficiency/effectiveness performance measures Cost/pax trip vehicle mile Cost/pax trip availability -- -- per vehicle; lane/headways; -- -- lane/headways; cost/pax; Maintainability pax trip riders per month operating hours operating hours cost/car-mile Cleanliness; Cleanliness; Cleanliness; friendliness of friendliness of friendliness of passenger staff; ride quality staff; ride quality staff; Comments and Comments cards Complaint cards surveys; Complaint cards Wait time; trip and comfort; and comfort; Station and train responsiveness feedback from Passenger experience performance measures complaints; Availability complaints; -- received from announcements to events; station received from passengers and complaints; received from time; in-service -- -- passengers passengers observations; passengers inspections responsiveness responsiveness and train employees audits to complaints; to complaints; announcements; convenience convenience complaints System Cost/car-hour; DT events (when Occurrences of DT events (when Maintenance Round trip time; PM schedule Round trip time; PM/CM PM/CM availability; DT car-hour per Other performance measures exceeded, affect interruptions and exceeded, affect Ridership -- events; QA completion; staff station -- inspection station employee; op. completions; completions; availability) incidents availability) training availability adherence availability breakdowns breakdowns audits hours/$1 cost Yes, for Yes, for first 10 Yes, extensive Yes, for late Yes, for delays Yes, up to 1 Yes, up to 1 stoppages equal Yes, for Yes, for unrelated and specific trains up to 21 up to 5 min; for Yes, no more Yes, for headway headway Yes, for first 10 to or less than 1 Yes, for service operational operational malfunctions, up grace periods sec and for delays and than 2 min downtime up to (mode); up to 2X (mode); up to 2X unrelated Grace periods min and 10 -- allowed relative schedule interruptions up failures up to 1 during schedule transitions up to one round trip headway (fleet); transitions up to headway (fleet); to 1 headway; up malfunctions, up alarms or less of to 3 min 2 min plus one 2 min plus one to one service to delays and transitions up to min (fleet and transitions time up to 1 min up to 1 min to 1 headway 1 min in duration headway headway day for one door downtime events 15 min platform doors) (platform) (platform) or less blockage Yes, for vehicle Yes, for Yes, if actual Yes, for Yes, K factors Yes, K factors Yes, K factors Yes, K factors Yes, K factors HVAC unit(s) scheduled capacity > the Yes, K factor if liquidated applied when applied when Yes, proportional Yes, proportional applied applied applied OTS; car LED train(s) OTS, scheduled time allotted for damages; exceeding exceeding to capacity to capacity depending on depending on depending on Partial service credit graphics OTS; -- station(s) OTS, capacity and the -- actual mode schedule actual mode monetary schedule actual mode schedule provided vs. provided vs. doors blocked; and vehicle actual headways transition is penalty factored transition time; transition time; scheduled scheduled operated vs. operated vs. operated vs. and 1-car of a 2- HVAC unit(s) <2 X scheduled exceeded according to and for lesser and for lesser capacity capacity mode scheduled mode scheduled mode scheduled car train blocked OTS headway failure type mode operated mode operated Average Vehicle trips; Average PM schedule Stoppages and Shutdowns; Other data collected as performance measures -- Car mileage -- -- -- -- -- headways/miles mileage -- headways/miles tracking DT ridership System DT events and System System Best measures from passenger's perspective Convenience Availability Convenience Availability Comments card durations availability DT events Maintainability availability DT events DT events Availability Shutdowns * Pax = passengers, DT = downtime, QA = quality assurance, KWH = kilowatt hours, K = partial service factor, PM/CM = preventive maintenance/corrective maintenance, OTS = out of service

OCR for page 100
104 Table A-12. Non-airport APM systems performance measures. NON-AIRPORT APM SYSTEM IDs 1 2 3 4 System availability; Train availability; System System Overall performance measures reliability (time availability schedule availability and distance); adherence peak vehicles Safety and security performance Occurrences Occurrences measures tracked tracked Cost/mile; cost/hour; Efficiency/effectiveness performance Operating hours cost/trip; measures cost/pax mile; per employee etc. Cleanliness; elevator and Passenger experience performance Complaints per Number of escalator in measures month complaints service; and complaints Subsystem failures graphed; scheduled vs. unscheduled Other performance measures maintenance; inactive vehicles/ scheduled peak vehicles Yes, train may Yes, delays up Grace periods be late for up to to 5 min one min Credit given for Partial service credit what is operated System Other data collected as performance Daily ridership shutdowns and measures data service interruptions Fleet reliability Best measures from passenger's Service and peak perspective vehicles interruptions For the airport APM system survey participants, safety and types of safety and security incidents that can be associated security performance measures exist in large part via occur- with public transit in urban environments. rences logged and reported but not tracked. This is different In terms of economic efficiency and/or effectiveness for the non-airport APM system participants that are FTA- measures, four of the 14 airport APM system survey partici- mandated reporters. They log, report, and track all safety and pants reported tracking an economic measure of this type. security incidents as required for the National Transit Data- The limited use of this type of measure could be explained base. The differences in the approaches can be explained not by the distributed nature of O&M cost responsibility for only by the mandated reporting aspect for FTA properties, airport APM systems. Often a contractor is responsible for but also by the frequency and nature of the safety and security one function or aspect of the APM system (operations and/ incidents that occur in airport versus non-airport APM sys- or maintenance of systems and/or facilities), whereas the tems. For the airport APM system survey participants, safety owner or other contractors are responsible for other func- incidents are generally limited to slips, falls, and/or other tions or aspects. Similarly, traction power and other APM minor injuries that are reported to and handled by the own- utilities costs can often be rolled up in other owner utili- er's risk management department. Security incidents are also ties costs, making it more difficult to ascertain the costs somewhat minor, being limited to crimes such as vandalism, allocated to the APM. Collecting and allocating airport which are reported to and handled by the local airport or city APM-only O&M costs can therefore become somewhat police. This is contrasted with the more frequent and diverse challenging.