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16 3.3.2.5 Safe and Secure Operations able to rapidly respond and repair the damage in order to resume operations. A third-party O&M provider would not All APM systems at airports operate in an environment with have such resources and the APM would likely sustain a much unique prerequisite requirements for safe and secure opera- longer service outage. tions that typically go beyond the operational requirements for urban or entertainment venue APM systems, particularly in a post-911 environment. For instance, antiair-piracy and 3.3.3 Measurement Factor: Other anti-terror considerations are aspects of an airport APM's operation that are less important (or non existent) in non- In addition to cost and risk, the following sub-factors airport APMs. In addition, because an airport APM's opera- constitute a category of other measurement factors that may tion is typically tied to the airport's and airlines' operations, a be affected by the different procurement methods. See Figure 4 disruption to APM operations risks a severe negative impact for rankings for the "other" measurement factor. to the traveling public. Thus, to reduce risk, an airport APM must operate with very high availability and reliability. The following three sub-factors address this risk with regard to 3.3.3.1 Community Participation the procurement options. Airports are typically held in esteem by the local communi- ties they serve, and in the case of large international airports, Availability (Routine). The service availability of an the airport typically serves as a substantial economic engine APM system is discussed in depth in subsequent chapters for its host city and region. Experience has shown that airport of this report. For the purposes of this transitional chapter, authorities typically strive to keep the positive economic effects it is sufficient to explain that an APM's availability is not of the airport localized, and accordingly, strive to procure and simply the percentage of time it operates versus the time it award contracts with consideration given to the following is out of service. Rather, availability is calculated by various two sub-factors. methodologies, and the important point is that an airport APM's availability must consistently be very high on a routine, Opportunities for Minority, Woman, and/or Dis day-to-day basis. This high availability should be achiev- advantaged Business Enterprises. As public entities, air- able via any of the four procurement methods, although sole port authorities typically have well-developed programs sourcing to the original supplier may incur a small advantage designed to promote contractual opportunities for local due to the previously discussed issues involving technical businesses certified as minority, woman, and/or disadvantaged expertise. business enterprises (M/W/DBEs). This sub-factor is essen- Reliability (Routine). Reliability is not synonymous tially ranked equally and as neutral among the procurement with availability, although poor reliability could obviously methods, with the exception that it is not applicable with negatively impact an APM's availability percentage. Reliability regard to the in-sourcing method. No major APM O&M pro- refers more to the required degree of internal operational and viders are known to be M/W/DBE certified, and successfully maintenance efforts and how they are effectively applied to meeting local M/W/DBE goals has been historically challeng- the APM system to ensure a reliable system. High reliability ing for O&M providers because the specialized nature of the should be achievable via any of the four procurement methods, work requires that it be performed by their own forces. Typi- although, again, a slight advantage is assumed for the sole- cally, M/W/DBE goals have been met by the O&M provider source method due to the previously discussed issues involving subcontracting to local certified businesses for temporary technical expertise. and/or administrative office staff, janitorial services, shipping services, office supplies, and any other such services that are Response to Non-Routine Circumstances/Incidents. applicable. The previous two sub-factors considered aspects of routine, day-to-day APM operations. This sub-factor considers the Local Participation. In addition to promoting M/W/ risk involved with non-routine circumstances or incidents. DBE participation, and for basically the same reasons, air- An example would be the failure of a vehicle's guide wheel port authorities typically strive to promote local participa- that, in turn, damages hundreds of feet of power rail along tion in the contracts they award. This sub-factor has also the guideway--a length far in excess of the length of replace- been ranked equally and as neutral among the procurement ment power rail on hand at the site. In a rare example such methods, again with the exception that it is not applicable as this, the sole-sourced original supplier would have the with regard to the in-sourcing method. Because of the small advantage of its home office and corporate resources being size of the O&M provider pool, it is extremely unlikely that

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17 Figure 4. Rankings for "other" measurement factor. a prospective O&M provider will reside in the host city and greatest disadvantage. This is again due mostly to the corporate be considered a local company. Thus, the goal of enhancing resources of the original supplier. The following two sub- local contractual participation has been historically chal- factors amplify this point. lenging and is usually met in the same way M/W/BE goals have been met. Assuming the M/W/DBE participants are Modification, Upgrades/Enhancements to Existing local businesses, both of these sub-factors could be satisfied System. The possibility of modifications and/or upgrades with the same companies subcontracted by a prospective to the existing system could take many forms and could O&M provider. involve any number of the subsystems of the APM. These include the automatic train control system (ATC), vehicles, communications, graphics, the central control facility, and 3.3.3.2 Future System Expansion a virtually endless assortment of other possibilities. However, all of the possibilities have commonality in that the original For purposes of this discussion, "expansion" is broadly supplier would have a substantial advantage in performing defined as a change to the existing APM system, including an modifications and/or upgrades and in many instances would extension to or expansion of the existing APM system. The be the sole entity with the ability to do so. It is appropriate, possibility exists that such expansion work could occur during and not unlikely, that this type of modification or upgrade/ the term of a particular O&M contract, either by unforeseen enhancement work could be performed under an O&M necessity or by planned design. It is possible that various contract. types of expansion work could be accomplished by separate contract, could possibly be added by change order to the Extension/Expansion of Existing System. An extension ongoing O&M contract, or may have been already included of the existing APM system could involve a physical exten- in the O&M contract award as in the example discussed in sion of the guideway in order to serve additional facilities. An Section 3.1.2. In any case, a procurement methodology that expansion of the existing APM system could also involve a ensures selection of the original APM supplier would have physical extension or could expand the APM system's capac- the greatest advantage, while a procurement methodology ity by increasing train length or adding operating trains to that results in a third-party O&M provider would have the the fleet. As with the previous sub-factor, extending and/or