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23 4.2Characteristics of Effective The measurement system be cost effective to implement Performance Measurement and sustain, Systems for APM Systems The system be reviewed on a semi-regular basis to ensure at Airports that the measures are still appropriate, Reporting or posting of the measures avoids oversaturation Performance measurement is a type of assessment. It is in order to maintain relevance and minimize the desensi- the ongoing monitoring and reporting of system or pro- tizing effect over the long term, and gram accomplishments, particularly of progress toward The system contain measures that: pre-established goals. Are meaningful; A key aspect of a successful performance measurement Describe how well the goals and objectives are being met; system is that it is composed of a balanced set of a few vital Are simple, understandable, logical, and repeatable; measures. For example, performance measurement of airport Show a trend; APM systems has historically focused on a system availability Are unambiguously defined; measurement, often including reliability and maintainability. Allow for economical data collection; and This is no surprise because these are also the core measures Are timely and sensitive. for many other engineered systems composed of numerous, technically complex subsystems designed to work together Historically, airport APM performance measurement has seamlessly and efficiently as a whole. APM suppliers use these been meaningful to owners, APM system suppliers, and O&M measures in their system designs, and owners use the measures service providers, but not always reflective or meaningful from to verify that the technology in which they have invested the passengers' perspective. As such, "meaningful" is further heavily is performing satisfactorily. It is a natural progres- clarified to mean "meaningful, but representative from all sion, then, that these same measures be used during the views." ongoing operation and maintenance of the system after its Similarly, the core availability, reliability, and maintainabil- construction and as the basis for payment to companies con- ity measures discussed previously have sometimes not been tracted to provide operations and/or maintenance services of simple since there can be onerous rules, problems collecting these systems. While the limited number of these core mea- data, or interpretational issues. Therefore, this guidebook sures satisfies the "few vital measures" aspect of a successful strives to improve airport APM performance measures in performance measurement system, they may not be well bal- this area to make them more simplistic and straightforward, anced in the absence of measures that look at the performance where possible. of other vital areas of an airport APM system (such as safety), In short, performance measurement focuses on whether the economic efficiency of the system or O&M service provider, a system or program has achieved its objectives, expressed as or the quality of service perceived by airport APM passengers, measurable performance standards. Because of its ongoing na- for example. ture, it can serve as an early warning system to management, as a Besides making up a balanced set of a few vital measures, vehicle for improving accountability to the public, as a method other aspects of effective performance measurement systems to document accomplishments, and as a way to compare similar for airport APM systems include that: programs and systems, such as other airport APM systems.