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4 Chapter 1 Background From its beginnings in the early 1970s, the airport auto- Because a common set of performance measures within mated people mover (APM) industry today is well established. the airport APM industry does not exist, the call for research As of 2010, there were 44 APM systems operating at airports on the topic was initiated by ACRP through this project. worldwide. Performance measurement of airport APM sys- tems has generally been focused on service availability and its 1.1 Research Approach component subparts. However, unlike in other industries, a common set of metrics to measure and compare performance Research on the project was undertaken using a stepwise of airport APM systems does not exist. The reasons for this approach, with assistance from the larger airport and urban include that: APM community, and under the oversight of a panel composed of members from the airport APM industry. There is no central authority over airport APM systems that The project team began by reviewing pertinent literature on requires performance reporting or performance visibility performance measurement, both in general and as specifically to the general public, such as exists for most public transit applied to APM systems at airports worldwide. The review agencies in the United States [i.e., because airport APM identified best practices as well as the processes undertaken to systems typically are not funded with federal dollars, they develop and implement performance measurement programs are generally not subject to the performance reporting for APM systems at airports. The project scope was limited to requirements established by Congress through 49 United airport APMs in North America. The review concluded with a States Code (USC) 5335 and the National Transit Database]. summary of the theory and practice of performance measure A by-product of federal funding involvement in the com- ment in other relevant transportation and service industries, mercial aviation and highway industries has been the cre- the relevant aspects of those performance measurement ation of common performance measures that are tracked, practices, the performance measures used, and their potential reported, compared, and publicly disclosed. usefulness to airport APM systems. Airport APMs are largely operated and/or maintained under The next step of the research involved developing a plan contract to a private services provider, often the system for a survey to investigate the current practice of performance supplier. These contracts typically compensate the provider measurement by APM systems at airports. The plan included based on performance, the terms of which are incorporated details on gathering data from visits to select airport and as part of the contract. The performance measure or mea- urban APM system sites in North America, a copy of the sures made part of these contracts generally include at least survey instruments, a list of the airport and non-airport APM service availability, but the ultimate rules, exclusions, and properties to be surveyed, and the areas that the survey method(s) of calculating these measures are subject to addressed, which included the characteristics of APM systems, negotiation with the owner. Therefore, the service availability the performance measures used, the data collection practices performance metric can vary dramatically from one system associated with the performance measures, performance data to the next. for the most recent year, and suggestions for improving data Airport APM systems vary greatly in their sizes, configu- collection and performance measurement practices. rations, technologies, maintenance provisions, ages, and The inclusion of urban (non-airport) APM systems in operating environments, making it more challenging to spe- the survey was required as part of the survey plan, and the cifically identify a common set of measures applicable to all. goal was to obtain at least 10 responses from the survey

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5 (at least seven airport APM responses and at least three non- industry, and the knowledge gained from responses by the airport APM responses). Upon approval of the survey plan airport APM properties have resulted in a collaborative, com- by the panel, the project team implemented the survey across prehensive guidebook for measuring performance of APM approximately 30 airport and non-airport APM properties in systems at airports. North America, obtaining an almost 50% survey return rate. This report begins with a summary of the guidebook, this The survey results were compiled and subsequently analyzed, chapter, which provides the background on the project and identifying similarities and differences in defining performance research approach, and follows with: measures and data among APM systems. Following the analysis of the survey results, the project team Chapter 2: Introduction assessed the feasibility of developing performance measures Chapter 3: Transitioning from APM Planning and Implemen- that could be used to assess and compare APM systems at tation to APM Operations and Maintenance airports, considering the differences among such systems. Chapter 4: Performance Measurement of APM Systems at An interim report was prepared that documented the results Airports: The Current Situation of the work up to that point, and the project team met with the Chapter 5: Performance Measures for APM Systems at Air- panel to discuss the findings. ports: Recommended Approach For various reasons, including the significant differences Chapter 6: Other Airport APM System Performance Measures among airport APM systems, the meeting involved a vigorous Chapter 7:Implementing an Airport APM Performance discussion about the feasibility of developing a common set of Measures Program performance measures to be used to compare airport APM sys- tems, with some believing it was possible and others believing The guidebook also includes Exhibit A, which contains it was not. the forms to be used to report the airport APM performance The project team moved forward with developing the measures and descriptive characteristics on a monthly basis, performance measures to be part of the guidebook, concise as well as the survey to be used to gather data for the Passenger definitions for each measure, the data needed to calculate each Satisfaction performance measure. performance measure, and the required data collection and The forms provided in Exhibit A are available for down- reporting techniques and associated resource requirements. load from the summary page for ACRP Report 37A at http:// This information was placed into the draft guidebook, itera- The electronic ver- tions of which were reviewed by the panel. Several rounds of sion of these forms will provide for easier dissemination comments were provided by the panel, which were considered and tracking. A Microsoft Excel workbook file of numerous and almost universally incorporated into the guidebook by spreadsheets that will aid the user in tracking and calculating the project team. These comments from panel members who the performance measures and descriptive characteristics are part of the airport APM industry, the research undertaken described in the guidebook is also available for download by the project team, the experience of the project team in the from the ACRP Report 37A summary page.