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67 S e c t i o n 2 Research for Performance Measurement 2.1Research for Performance Traffic-based, Measurement--In General Mobility-based, and Accessibility-based. Performance measurement is a type of assessment. It is the ongoing monitoring and reporting of system or pro- Litman [2.1.9] has suggested that the accessibility-based gram accomplishments, particularly of progress toward pre- approach is the best since accessibility is the ultimate goal of established goals [2.1.5--Numbers in brackets throughout most transportation. this appendix refer to numbered items in the appendix's It is not possible to describe all performance measures, bibliography.] approaches, or methodologies here since the length of this A key aspect of a successful performance measurement sys- appendix and scope of the project is limited; however, a few tem is that it makes up a balanced set of a few vital measures. methodologies are briefly documented for potential reference Performance measures may address the type or level of program when developing performance measures for APM systems at or system activities conducted (process), the direct products airports. and services delivered by a program or system (outputs), or the results of those products and services (outcomes) [2.1.5]. In any case, measures should: 2.1.1 Balanced Scoreboard The Balanced Scorecard approach is a strategic manage- Be meaningful; ment approach introduced in 1992 by Robert S. Kaplan and Describe how well the goals and objectives are being met; David P. Norton of the Harvard Business School [2.1.7]. This Be simple, understandable, logical, and repeatable; management approach galvanized and revolutionized the Show a trend; field. It not only enables organizations to clarify their vision Be unambiguously defined; and strategy and translate them into action, but it also pro- Allow for economical data collection; and vides feedback about both the internal business processes and Be timely and sensitive [2.1.12]. external outcomes in order to continuously improve strategic performance and results. The Balanced Scorecard approach There is an extensive body of research on performance mea- gained wide use and acclaim in the private sector as a way to surement in general, and in particular as applied to public tran- build customer and employee data to measure and ensure sit, which is described later. For example, the scope of transit better performance outcomes. It thus transformed the way performances measures has expanded from simple or limited private-sector companies could achieve and analyze high levels indicators such as cost [2.1.8] to comprehensive indices such of performance and was critical in revitalizing such companies as regularity index [2.1.6] or total productivity index [2.1.13]. as Federal Express, Corning, and Sears [2.1.11]. There is also a wide range of performance measurement The Balanced Scorecard approach found its way to the methodologies, including: public sector in the later 1990s. Phillips [2.1.14] suggested the application of the Balanced Scorecard to transit performance Balanced Scorecard [2.1.7], measures by developing a comprehensive list of constructs Data envelopment analysis (DEA) [2.1.2], and measures for public transit performance assessment Multi-criteria multimodal network analyses [2.1.16], (i.e., a shopping list of measures for managers to choose