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73 Advancement in systematic transit performance measures uses of various indicators. The study also focused on a number was documented in a study by Kopp, Moriarty, and Pitstick of case studies of various transit systems to gather effective [2.3.7]. Past transit performance measures typically focused performance measures. on attributes of service supply such as capacity, passenger As a result of the study TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for loading, frequency, and reliability. These measures were Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System was effective in describing the quality of transit service available produced [2.3.19]. This guidebook assists transit system at a given location, but they did not describe how well transit managers in developing a performance-measurement system serves actual passenger trips from that location to potential or program that uses traditional and nontraditional perfor- destinations. Kopp and his coauthors developed a methodology mance measures to address customer and community issues. to evaluate the relative attractiveness of travel by public transit The guidebook contains six chapters, each covering a and personal automobile on a sample of origindestination different aspect of developing a performance-measurement pairs throughout the Chicago metropolitan region. Transit program: attractiveness was computed by using a logit mode choice framework that compared the utility of travel by transit, auto, Chapter 1 describes how to use the guidebook. and park-and-ride for various components of travel time and Chapter 2 makes the case for why agencies should measure travel cost. their performance. Chapter 3 presents 12 case studies of successful programs. Chapter 4 provides an eight-step process for implementing, 2.3.2 Concentrated Efforts using, and periodically updating a program. Many more performance measures have been developed Chapter 5 describes resources available to agencies devel- and used in a variety of ways in response to differing tran- oping or updating a program. sit system goals and objectives. What is currently missing Chapter 6 contains 130 summaries describing more than is a rigorous process for determining the most appropriate 400 individual performance measures and a series of selection performance measures to be used by a transit organization. menus to help users quickly identify measures appropriate Furthermore, traditional service efficiency indicators, such as to particular agency goals and resources. operating expense per vehicle revenue mile and/or hour, and cost-effectiveness indicators, such as operating expense per In addition to the report, a computer program was devel- passenger mile and/or passenger trip, are not always linked oped for the purpose of gathering transit performance mea- to customer-oriented and community issues. sures. Using Florida Transit evaluation data as the foundation, There have been two major efforts in recent years to develop the program can be used to process National Transit Data- a process that transit systems can use to prepare a performance- base (also known as Section 15) data. The software is useful to measurement program sensitive to customer-oriented and compare transit performances of various peer agencies. community issues and showcase the potential examples and As one of the concentrated efforts in developing transit lessons learned. The first concentrated effort was TCRP performance measures, the TCRP report compiled a fairly Project G-06, the results of which were documented in TCRP comprehensive database and explored an effective process. Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance- The process is useful for the development of airport APM Measurement System [2.3.19]. The second effort was a series performance measures even though the indicators may be of conferences on performance measures to improve trans- different. portation systems and agency operations held in Irvine, California, in 2000 and 2004 [2.3.20 and 2.3.21]. Even though 2.3.2.2Conferences on Transportation there are a number of studies and conferences related to the Performance Measures subject of transit performance measures, we have highlighted the content of these two efforts in an effort to narrow the focus There have been two conferences on performance measures of the topic. held in the past several years, the topics of which go back to the growing interest and debates that surrounded the develop- ment and use of performance measures to guide investment 2.3.2.1 TCRP Report 88 decisions at all levels of government. The objectives of this TCRP research were to provide a The first national conference on performance measures, framework by which to select and apply appropriate perfor- held in Irvine, California, in 2000 [2.3.20], brought together a mance measures integral to transit-system decision making. group of government, academic, and business leaders who had The study explored various subjects directly related to transit experience in transportation system performance measures performance measures, such as purpose, characteristics, and and performance-based planning and programming. The