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76 measures relate some function of cost to an individual unit passengers voluntarily remain on the platform, such as when such as aircraft or originating passenger. Nonfinancial perfor they have plenty of time and do not want to squeeze into mance measures usually have no component of cost associ- an occupied vehicle. Both of these types of denied boardings ated with them. Both types of performance measures could be could provide useful information regarding the performance applied to airport APM systems. In this section, performance of an airport APM system. However, collecting such data measures found in the airline industry will be discussed along may prove to be difficult. with the possible application to airport APM systems. The third measure on the list is the rate of mishandled passenger baggage. The airlines report the number of incidents for lost, damaged, delayed, or pilfered baggage. The airlines 2.4.1 Government-Monitored Measures that are required to report these statistics are ranked in the The most widely reported nonfinancial performance mea- Air Travel Consumer Report based on lowest to highest rate of sures of airlines are collected by government agencies such mishandled baggage. This statistic is not directly translatable as the FAA, the United States Department of Transportation to airport APM systems because passengers handle their own (U.S. DOT), and the National Transportation Safety Board baggage. While there may be a need in the future to collect (NTSB). These performance measures are used to assess such statistics for airport APM systems, the need for mis- and compare airline performance across the industry. The handled baggage statistics is not expected in the foreseeable performance measures collected by the government agencies future. include: The fourth measure on the list concerns consumer com- plaints. The number and type of complaints filed with the 1. On-time performance, U.S. DOT are collected and reported in a variety of formats. 2.Oversales, The types of reports filed include flight problems, baggage, 3. Mishandled baggage, customer service, oversales, and disabilities. Similar data 4. Consumer complaints, could be collected for airport APM systems to determine the 5. Accidents and incidents, and types of problems encountered by passengers. These statistics 6. Runway incursions. could be used by the system operator to improve the level of service provided to passengers. These statistics and others are presented in the Air Travel The fifth measure on the list is collected by the NTSB Consumer Report [2.4.1], which is presented on the U.S. DOT's and reported to the FAA regarding accidents and incidents. website, The report lists all accidents and incidents, including those On-time performance measures are collected for both resulting in fatalities, by aircraft type. Summary data are pre- arriving and departing aircraft. When aircraft are not con- sented in both preliminary and final reports. More detailed sidered on time, the reasons for the delays are recorded. The accident and incident data are also collected and reported by percent of on-time arrivals by airline is just one of the statistics the NTSB. Accident and incident data could also be collected presented in the Air Travel Consumer Report. These statistics for airport APM systems to measure the safety of the system can be translated to airport APM systems. However, since APM operation, both with regard to passengers and vehicles. These systems typically operate on a headway basis rather than a data could then be reviewed to determine when problems schedule basis, a statistic measuring of the frequency of trains exist and corrective actions should be taken. may be more useful. The final measure concerns runway incursions and is The second measure is the number of oversales, or the collected by the FAA. A runway incursion is "any occurrence number of passengers who hold confirmed reservations and in the airport runway environment involving an aircraft, are denied boarding on a flight because it is oversold. These vehicle, person, or object on the ground that creates a colli- include both voluntary and involuntary denied boardings. sion hazard or results in a loss of required separation with an The first accounts for those passengers who voluntarily give aircraft taking off, intending to take off, landing, or intend- up their seats in exchange for compensation. The second ing to land" [2.4.6]. A similar measure for incursions on an accounts from those passengers who did not volunteer to give APM guideway should normally not be necessary given the up their seats but were denied boarding (bumped) and who security and precautions that are taken during design, instal- may have received compensation. Similar statistics could be lation, and operation of an APM system. However, there are collected for airport APM systems to facilitate the operation instances where incursions, in the form of objects and/or pas- of the APM. For example, the number of denied boardings sengers rather than between vehicles, can interfere with APM due to trains being at capacity could be collected to deter- operations. For example, an open pedestrian bridge cross- mine when additional vehicles need to be put into operation ing above an APM at a particular airport has contributed to to satisfy increased demand. There are also occasions when objects being dropped on the guideway and causing service