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81 sures that attempt to provide a level of predictability for a Of these 12, there are four that may be appropriately used traveler using a (highway) system that presents a significant as performance measures in the airport APM industry: cus- level of unreliability in travel times. Airport APM systems tomer satisfaction, incident duration, throughput person, provide a relatively high level of travel time reliability that and throughput vehicle. Each of these is briefly discussed may make other measures better candidates for measuring in the following paragraphs with regard to applicability to performance. airport APMs. 2.5.2National Transportation 2.5.2.1 Customer Satisfaction Operations Coalition Customer satisfaction is a measure in the NTOC Perfor- In 1999 the FHWA initiated the National Dialogue on mance Measurement Initiative final report that applies spe- Transportation Operations to encourage discussions on cifically to highway management and operations; however, it roadway operations issues and advocate for a stronger is a measure that can be applied in the airport APM industry focus on operating the nation's transportation system. This as well. It can be measured in different ways, one of which is resulted in several major initiatives and evolved into the by assigning values to survey responses and tracking those creation of the National Transportation Operations Coali- values over time. While the literature review of APM-related tion (NTOC). material did not specifically yield customer satisfaction as a The NTOC is supported by the FHWA and serves as measure used in the airport APM industry, it is a measure an important foundation for institutionalizing manage- that merits further exploration and may possibly be found to ment and operations in the transportation industry. It be in use at airport APM properties today. is an alliance of national associations, practitioners, and private-sector groups that represent the collective interests 2.5.2.2 Incident Duration of stakeholders at state, local, and regional levels who have a wide range of experience in operations, planning, and The second NTOC performance measure that may be public safety. The mission of the NTOC is "to improve applicable to the airport APM industry is the incident dura- management and operation of the nation's existing trans- tion measured in median minutes per incident. While this portation system so that its performance will exceed customer measure has specific definition and meaning in the NTOC expectations" [2.5.8]. report as applied to the highway industry, a similar measure The Performance Measurement and Reporting sub is in use today in the airport APM industry, as described committee of the NTOC is one of a number of subcommittees earlier in this appendix. MTTR, or mean time to restore, is and action teams working to promote operations strategies a measure that similarly gauges the time elapsed from the and benefits to stakeholders. In July 2005 this subcommittee beginning until the end of an incident or failure and is used issued a final report on its Performance Measurement Initia- in the overall calculation of system availability. Where this tive, which identified 12 performance measures commonly measure is used to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency agreed upon by federal, state, and local transportation offi- responders on incident duration in the highway industry, it cials to be the basis for a national set of performance mea- can and is similarly used to evaluate the maintainability and sures. The measures may be used for internal management, effectiveness of maintenance technicians on failures in the external communications, and comparative measurement. airport APM industry. The measures are: 2.5.2.3Throughout Customer satisfaction Extent of congestion spatial The remaining two NTOC performance measures that may Extent of congestion temporal be applicable to the APM industry are the measures of person Incident duration and vehicle throughput. Both are measures of capacity and are Nonrecurring delay currently used in the design and operations of airport APM Recurring delay systems. For the most part, they are very well defined in the Speed APM industry. As discussed earlier in this appendix, capac- Throughput person ity is taken into account during revenue operations of airport Throughput vehicle APM systems in general and as a way to credit operators who Travel time link provide the highest capacity during degraded mode opera- Travel time reliability (buffer time) tions. It will be useful to further explore the potential use of Travel time trip capacity as a performance measure for airport APM systems.