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20 The Carbon Market: A Primer for Airports 16,000 tonnes of CO2. This case study could serve as a model for United Statesbased airports interested in hosting a similar project. Case Study 1 is an example of a reforestation project. The following are examples of other forestry project types: Urban Forestry--Some offset standard bodies have developed, or are developing, protocols for urban forestry. These protocols allow entities that plant trees along streets, near buildings, or on other property to be eligible to originate offset credits. An airport implementing an urban forestry offset program might line access roads or airport parking lots with trees to sequester GHGs. In terms of revenue opportunities, such a project is probably limited as the number of tonnes of CO2e sequestered from such a project is likely to be minimal. The value of such a proj- ect would rest more in "green" branding than revenue opportunities. Reforestation--A reforestation project generally involves restoring tree cover to an area that has been in a non-forest state for an extended period of time. Generally reforestation projects involve planting new trees and/or removing any impediments to natural reforestation. Impediments often include non-native species, pests, or manmade impediments preventing forest growth. Improved Forest Management--Improved forest management (IFM) projects generally involve managing forests in such a way as to either maintain or increase the forest land's carbon stock. Eligible forest management activities often include removing diseased trees, managing competing brush and short-lived forest species, or increasing the stocking of trees on under- stocked areas. Avoided Conversion--Finally, some landowners are eligible to claim offset credits simply by committing to keep their land in forestry. The justification for this type of project is that the land has more value to a landowner in a non-forest state than it does in forestry and without incentive, will eventually convert into a more profitable, non-forest state. Offset credits provide an incen- tive for the landowner to keep the land in forestry. IFM and avoided conversion projects would only be viable at airports with large forest holdings, a feature not common at most airports. 2.1.4 Industrial Pollutants Key Takeaways for Airports · Old equipment in airport facilities may contain ozone depleting substances (ODS), the destruction of which is a commonly recognized offset project. ODSs have historically been used in a variety of applications including refrigerants, solvents, and fire extinguishing devices. As a pollutant, ODSs are more familiarly associated with their contribution to the depletion of the earth's ozone layer. However, many ODSs have extremely high GWP, and thus the prevention of their release can have substantial impacts on atmospheric GHG concentration levels. Many offset standard bodies recognize the destruction of ODSs, in order to prevent their release into the atmosphere as a viable carbon offset activity, eligible to originate offset credits. ODS Destruction--Largely due to an increased awareness of the impact ODSs have on the depletion of the ozone layer, the use of ODSs has largely been phased out. At airports, some equipment, such as refrigeration units, still contain ODSs which can be released into the atmo- sphere as units are serviced, recycled, or disposed. Some ODSs have been replaced with hydrofluo- rocarbons (HFCs), which are ozone-friendly but have high GWPs.