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ALTERNATIVE FUEL AND VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES One of the first sustainability steps taken in the cities visited was the replacement of diesel public transit vehicles, including taxis, with fleets running on CNG. In Ahmedabad, the BRT line operates the India Starbus, consisting of 145 dedicated CNG, raised-floor, special-purpose buses. The Starbus is manufactured in India. In Delhi, the DTC operates an all-CNG fleet of more than 6,000 buses, the largest such fleet in the world.13 The auto-rickshaw is a popular, efficient, and af- fordable taxi used throughout Ahmedabad. In 2005, the city was home to more than 50,000 three-wheeled auto-rickshaws. About 15,000 of these vehicles were Figure 8 CNG-powered auto-rickshaws are a common more than 20 years old, and a majority of them used sight and an efficient, affordable mode of transport in adulterated fuels (diesel and kerosene). In an ag- Ahmedabad. gressive attempt to improve air quality in the city, the AMC ordered all rickshaws registered before 1991 off the road. In addition, the state government have the right-of-way in all parts of Hangzhou and are prohibited rickshaws from using diesel inside the very popular. urban areas of the city and mandated that those rick- Currently, however, electric vehicles move emis- shaws be converted to CNG. Low-interest loans were sions from the tailpipe to the smokestack. Given that made available to operators to assist with the pur- most electricity generation in China is still coal-based, chase of new eco-friendly CNG auto-rickshaws electrification of the fleet probably represents an in- (Figure 8). In 2004, the AMC also banned heavy-duty crease rather than a decrease in GHG emissions. If all diesel trucks from operating within the urban growth or most electric power becomes generated through re- boundaries of the city. In Delhi, the courts decided in 1998 that all buses, newable, non-emitting sources, fleet-electrification rickshaws, and taxis were to be converted to CNG could represent a strategy in overall GHG emissions and that 70 CNG fueling stations were to be made reduction. available. The courts asked that financial incentives be Natural gas has not been a popular fuel choice in provided for these conversions. By December 2002, Shanghai. In 1998, the first CNG station opened in the last diesel bus had disappeared from Delhi's roads. the city. Because of the uncertainty of gas supply Guangzhou operates the largest fleet of liquefied and the lack of economic incentives, only 281 CNG petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles in the world. Here, buses are operating today. This may change as China more than 8,000 buses and 15,000 taxis run on LPG. continues to expand natural gas availability and In promoting the use of LPG (known as Autogas), infrastructure. Guangzhou city leaders touted the usual advantages of As an innovative alternative, China has deployed lower emissions and lower prices. China began pro- a "super-capacitor" quick-charge bus in downtown moting Autogas in 2001, when the fuel was introduced Shanghai (Figure 9). This vehicle combines the use of in nine major cities, including Beijing and Shanghai. conventional batteries and super-capacitor technol- Its use has had a positive impact on air quality. ogy. Although the life cycle of the batteries has been Hangzhou is unique in its adoption of electric improved, their weight and size still present technical vehicles. Most of these are two-wheeled vehicles hurdles. that are allowed to operate in bicycle lanes. Unlike China is the world's largest manufacturer of new Shanghai, where two-wheeled vehicles of any kind battery technology for automobiles, buses, and small- are banned from the city center, electric two-wheelers to medium-duty trucks. China's electric bus produc- tion is progressing in conjunction with new battery technology development. Through joint ventures, sev- 13 Delhi Transport Corporation. Fact Sheet, p. 1. eral large car and bus manufacturers are supplying 14