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3. Using transportation as a planning instrument to guide development. 4. Using technology to address air quality prob- lems (CNG vehicles, hybrids, electric vehi- cles, etc.). In the mid-1990s, officials in India and China recognized that inadequate infrastructure and ser- vices were impediments to sustainable development in their large cities. Consequently, plans were put in place to tackle the challenges of rapid urbanization and motorization by accelerating the supply of in- frastructure and services while promoting sustain- able public transportation and eco-governance at the regional level. For example, in India, the national government launched several policies and initiatives as part of its plan to foster sustainable urban transportation sys- tems. The NUTP, created in 2006 by the Ministry of Urban Development to facilitate the implementation of people-centric urban transportation solutions, set forth a vision, goals, and objectives that were a sig- nificant departure from traditional urban transporta- tion practices in Indian cities. Essentially, the NUTP articulates an emphasis on public transportation and the development of non-motorized modes that provide high-capacity, efficient public transportation. The NUTP includes the following objectives: · Incorporation of urban transportation as an im- Figure 9 Shanghai's super-capacitor bus combines portant element at the master planning stage, conventional batteries with super-capacitor technology. rather than a consequential requirement · Implementation of plans and projects that are 100% battery-powered zero-emission vehicles to the people-centric · Promotion of cleaner technologies transit market in China and abroad. In 2009, the · Establishment of quality, integrated, multi- Chinese government launched the "Ten Cities, Thou- sand Vehicles" program to stimulate electric vehicle modal public transportation systems that pro- and new-energy bus development through large pilot vide seamless travel across all modes programs in 10 cities. This program has now been ex- · Equitable allocation of road space, with em- panded to 25 cities and includes consumer incentives phasis placed on movement of people rather in five cities. than movement of vehicles · Reduction in pollution · Recognition of road safety concerns PLANNING AND OUTREACH In India, transit planning for BRT and metro is a Four planning elements have set a path to sus- much-abbreviated process compared with that in the tainability in the cities visited: United States. Government officials discuss public 1. Making public transportation a priority, with outreach in terms of months, not years. Core project the intent to ensure mobility. planning in terms of mode selection, financing, ameni- 2. Creating multimodal systems consisting of ties, and locations appears to be done before present- pedestrians, bicycles, buses, metro, and rail ing the project to the public. Public universities and (high-speed in China). their transit programs provide support for government 15