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agencies, giving students and professors real-world tracking helps ensure on-time performance through application for their work. Anecdotal information on active management from the control center. The city's the public outreach process suggests it is largely fo- master planning program is strongly connected to de- cused on schedule of operations, mitigation of con- cisions about which BRT corridor to bring on line struction impacts, and relocation of the urban poor, as next. Implementation of the BRT network focuses well as working with the adjacent landowners and on connecting major activity hubs identified in the businesses on property redevelopment and exactions. master plan and on serving streets with substantial Planning and development projects are ultimately in- right-of-way for BRT integration. Public-private tegrated into urban development in India because rail partnerships have been used aggressively to gain and highways are specifically enabled by the national benefits from competition among operating compa- constitution, but urban transport is not. nies and keep public staffing to a minimum. Offi- In China, the central government plays a role in cials recognize that if a system is unaffordable it is the development of sustainable public transport, in- unsustainable. cluding BRT, metro, and clean energy technologies. In both Guangzhou and Hangzhou, the direct Officials from Guangzhou, Hangzhou, and Shanghai service model for BRT allows for seamless transfers indicated that the central government provides fund- between local buses and the BRT line and reduces ing or subsidies for public transportation investment. fare-collection costs. Full integration of BRT services Although many public transportation investments and bicycle-share stations was considered in the de- have been financed by public funds at the national, velopment of BRT lines, allowing the stations to be provincial, and local levels, many large-scale infra- designed to incorporate bicycles. structure projects, such as BRT and metro systems, have required the involvement of public-private partnerships. Metro Varied instruments and mechanisms were used Delhi's disciplined crowd-management proce- to engage public participation in the planning and im- dures on metro are extremely effective at improving plementation of BRT in Ahmedabad, Delhi, Guang- the efficiency of boarding and alighting. The city zhou, Hangzhou, and Shanghai. In Ahmedabad, for has the first railway system in the world to be regis- example, various media streams were used to dis- tered under the Clean Development Mechanism of seminate information, engage the public, and solicit the United Nations Framework Convention on Cli- input. Regular press releases were distributed by mate Change, a status that enables Delhi to claim the city, and concerted efforts were made to promote carbon credits. Janmarg BRT's branding among citizens. Public In Guangzhou, three-dimensional signs depict- events and workshops were conducted along the ing both metro station layouts and built features sur- corridor. Religious leaders were used as conduits rounding the stations have made the system much to disseminate information and answer questions. more accessible to visitors, especially those who do Information displays were set up at CEPT Univer- not speak the local language. sity and other venues. In Delhi and Guangzhou, the public participation process was somewhat similar to that used in Ahmedabad, but focused mainly on Bicycle-Share Programs media and press releases. Although the degree and extent of the public participation process in the In Guangzhou, a large pool of bicycles, number- BRT and metro projects in Hangzhou and Shanghai ing in the thousands, was easily accessible from was not discussed, both cities used workshops, the outset of the service. In both Guangzhou and demonstrations, and media as means of informing Hangzhou, graduated price structures encourage use the public. of the bicycle-share system for short trips through- out the day. Bicycles are so easily available that lit- tle incentive exists to steal them; they can be used SUCCESSFUL PRACTICES for free during the first hour and for nominal sums BRT thereafter, and they are available all over the city. Bicycle-share stations are staffed during peak periods In Ahmedabad, real-time bus arrival and departure to facilitate quick drop-off and to redistribute bicycles information is available at all BRT stations, and GPS as necessary to ensure sufficient capacity. 16