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Avoid debt financing. In addition to the aggressive of attempts to limit the expansion of private automo- use of public-private partnerships, the Indian and bile ownership and use. Efforts were focused on en- Chinese systems viewed by the team were built with ticing, through the provision of exceptional public little or no public debt. This "pay as you go" financ- transportation service, riders from their cars and onto ing approach will provide substantial financial flexi- buses and trains. bility in future years. Land use. In both countries, the team found evidence of cases in which officials were integrating land use CHALLENGES and transit planning. The pace of development in both Despite the impressive progress toward building countries does appear to be outstripping these efforts, sustainable transit systems, the team did note some however, especially outside the city cores. areas that will continue to be challenges for the transit systems in both countries. State of good repair. One of the key public transit challenges in the United States is keeping its system in Air quality. Despite the aggressive introduction of a good working condition. Although officials in India alternative fuel buses, the banning of mopeds, and and China were aware of the need to plan for capital the conversion of taxis to CNG, both countries con- replacement and mid-life maintenance of their rapidly tinue to experience serious, and in some cases severe, growing systems, the team found little evidence of air quality problems. substantial planning for these requirements. Some of the assets the team toured, although relatively new, Design quality. The systems viewed by the team were already showing signs of wear and neglect. were well-designed, impressive facilities. In some cases, however, structures did not appear to be aging System integration. The team noted the effort made well and might have benefited from stronger design in both countries to integrate their transit systems. and construction standards. Both countries were Particularly noteworthy were the direct BRT-metro faced with building transit infrastructure on a sched- connections in Guangzhou and bicycle-BRT-metro ule that would meet the challenges of rapid urbaniza- connections in Hangzhou and Guangzhou. The inte- tion; as a result, long-term benefits might not have gration of newer options with legacy bus systems was been given the attention they deserved in balancing less well developed, however, even though those sys- the need for quick construction with extending the tems still carry the majority of the transit riders in the useful life of assets. country. The fact that these legacy bus systems are operated by separate governmental entities than the Capacity. The rate of construction of new systems, newer systems may impede fuller system integration. particularly in China, was very impressive. High lev- els of crowding were noted on some systems, how- Environmental protection culture not perva- ever, causing the team members to wonder if even the sive. The primary focus in both countries is in build- high level of infrastructure being put in place was ing new systems to meet the demands of extraordinary going to be sufficient to meet the country's growing urban population growth. Given this understandable needs. Overcrowding could undermine ridership orientation, the team did not see much evidence of an growth and also increase wear-and-tear on the system. environmental protection culture within the transit agencies. To the extent that environmentally friendly Automobile growth. India and China are experi- policies or initiatives were being introduced, this often encing upwards of 20% annual growth in their auto- was done to bring an agency into conformity with mobile fleets. The environmental and quality-of-life national environmental regulations. effects of this growth could offset many of the gains from the impressive investment both countries are APPENDIX A--STUDY MISSION making in public transit. Both countries are investing TEAM MEMBERS heavily in their automobile industries and their high- (Affiliations listed were current at the time of the way infrastructure. As incomes rise, the appeal of car study mission.) ownership will be every bit as strong as it has been in other countries. With the exception of license-plate Kevin Desmond (Team Leader), General Manager, auctioning in Shanghai, the team found no evidence King County Metro Transit, Seattle, Washington 18