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Hangzhou than a 10-minute walk) of any point within the outer ring road. Within the inner ring road, transit options Hangzhou, a city of nearly 7 million people, lies are planned to be available no farther than one-fifth in the shadow of its much larger neighbor Shanghai, mile from any point (less than a five-minute walk). which is approximately 90 miles to the northeast. According to municipal planning officials, im- This proximity to one of the world's largest cities proving air quality is a key element of Shanghai's allows Hangzhou to capitalize on its reputation as drive toward sustainability. Emissions reduction tar- one of the most picturesque urban destinations in all gets were set at 45% for the 15-year period starting in of China. The growing disposable income available 2005. As part of that effort, a goal of 50% transit mode to many people in Shanghai, coupled with the new share for all trips made in Shanghai also has been high-speed rail link between the two cities, allows defined, up from its current 42%. Like Hangzhou, Hangzhou's tourism market to thrive. Its major Shanghai's municipal officials consider taxis to be an attraction, West Lake, lies in the heart of the city. To integral part of the transit network and thus a part of the east of the lake are Hangzhou's historic districts, the suite of transportation options that encourage res- including the popular Shangcheng Old Town. To the idents to limit acquisition of private automobiles. northeast is the modern business center of the city. The pace of transportation capital development in Before April 2006, Hangzhou's public transporta- the Shanghai region is astounding. Twenty-five years tion options consisted only of local buses and taxis, ago, Shanghai had no metro lines and no express high- with no common fare collection media. At that time, ways. At that time, the first comprehensive traffic sur- the city opened the first of 11 planned BRT lines, veys were being conducted by the municipal planning quickly followed by three additional lines. In 2008, office. Two years later, in 1988, China's first express- the first bicycle-share stations were opened, and the way opened in Shanghai, after which approval was network has since expanded to more than 2,400 sta- granted to begin construction of the city's first metro tions throughout the city. Between 10 and 70 bicy- line. This first line opened in 1995, and 39 miles of cles are accommodated at each facility, with a total metro rail lines were in service a scant 5 years later. of 60,000 bicycles available throughout the system. The rail network grew to more than 90 miles by 2005, During 2010, the municipality reported 70 million and the Shanghai Metro is now the world's largest at individual uses of the bicycles. Growth of the network nearly 300 miles. Close to 250 more miles of lines are remains strong, with between 300 and 500 new projected to be in service by 2020. A fleet of 17,000 bicycle-share stations expected during 2011. buses currently complements this rail network. Shanghai OVERVIEW Shanghai is home to approximately 20 million For purposes of this digest, "sustainability" is de- people in a land area of just under 4,000 square miles. fined as meeting today's needs without compromising The city is located on the Pacific coast of east-central the ability of future generations to meet their needs. China near the mouth of the Yangtze River, within With regard to sustainable transportation programs/ the most-developed delta in China. Even with its projects, three critical factors, or pillars, should be well-documented highway congestion, Shanghai's considered when making decisions. auto ownership rates remain relatively low. Of the 2.5 million motor vehicles registered in the city, only 1. Environmental aspects. Consideration should 1.6 million are private automobiles. This figure is be given to methods that minimize or mitigate expected to grow by 100,000 each year, however, any negative aspects and maximize benefits and to limit this auto ownership growth rate, vehicle to the environment of any transportation license plates may now be purchased only through program/project decision. auctions conducted by the city. As a result, recent 2. Economic aspects. Consideration should be prices for license plates have exceeded the average given to funding a transportation program/ vehicle purchase price. project in a way that maximizes the economic Shanghai is committed to providing a robust vitality of those affected by the decision over transit network that serves every neighborhood of the long term. the city. In particular, a goal has been set of locating 3. Social issues. Consideration should be given a bus or metro rail stop within one-third mile (less to how the program/project will affect society 4