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in general, as well as individuals who might · Incorporate urban transportation as an impor- be affected directly by the decision. tant parameter at the urban planning stage . . . · Encourage integrated land use and transport When meeting with transportation and govern- planning in all cities so that travel distances ment officials, throughout the mission, team members are minimized . . . used this definition of sustainability and the three re- · Bring about a more equitable allocation of lated pillars as a lens through which to examine the road space with people, rather than vehicles, transportation systems in each city. as its main focus.3 Officials in India and China recognize that pop- ulation growth is far outpacing the ability of federal, India's central government has backed this com- regional, and local governments to provide needed mitment with resources. Its national policy states infrastructure and housing. Public transportation plays that it will provide 50% of the costs of preparing a key role not only in moving people but also in sus- comprehensive city transport plans and detailed pro- taining economic activity. In every city visited, dra- ject reports. It will also offer equity participation matic growth in automobile ownership and use is and/or viability gap funding to the extent of 20% of causing severe congestion, and building new high- the capital costs of public transportation systems. way capacity is not viewed as a sustainable option. Finally, the policy commits the central government These cities face environmental quality issues caused to provide 50% of the cost of project development to by air pollution from traffic congestion coupled with projects that conform to national planning standards.4 emissions from industrial sites. National policy also supports investment in appro- Federal, regional, and local governments in India priate technologies, integrated modal systems, strong and China have responded to these challenges through paratransit service, use of clean technologies, and a wide variety of policies and programs. The team re- stronger public outreach and awareness. Although ceived presentations on various modes of public trans- the federal government sets a strong policy frame- portation, including traditional fixed-route bus service, work, the "primary responsibility for urban transport BRT, metro (subway), bicycle share, and a pedestrian infrastructure and service delivery rests with state greenway. The public transportation systems studied governments and local bodies."5 receive subsidies from local and state governments for Since the early 1990s, public transportation in operating assistance, with some level of public-private China has benefited from an improved policy frame- work and increased investment, which have resulted partnerships playing a role in service delivery. Each in rising ridership levels. During the first phase of transit system strives to make service convenient this reform, the focus was on reducing costs and im- and affordable. Advancements in technology, ranging proving efficiencies of operations for existing systems from fare collection to real time information systems, and organizations and instituting fare increases. are critical to the success of the services. During the second phase, focus shifted to changes in the underlying organizational structure, with moves to PUBLIC POLICY FRAMEWORK privatization or spin-off of independent transit agen- In both India and China, responses to the chal- cies, use of joint ventures and bus or rail line fran- lenges of urbanization and rapid economic growth chises, and subcontracts with private companies. are being made within a supportive national policy A 2005 combined policy statement by five key framework. The central governments in both countries central government ministries in China states the recognize the importance of public transportation to following: their national growth strategies and have taken steps Urban public transportation provides important to provide strong policy guidance to the local juris- and fundamental infrastructure which is closely dictions responsible for building and operating the related to productivity and quality of life of the public transit systems. people. . . . Giving priority to the development India's National Urban Transport Policy, adopted in 2006, includes the following policy objectives: 3NUTP, p. 3. · Encourage greater use of public transport and 4NUTP, p. 7. non-motorized modes by offering central fi- 5Urban Transport Wing, Ministry of Urban Development, Gov- nancing assistance for this purpose. ernment of India. PowerPoint Presentation, April 2011. 5