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of urban public transit is an important tool to im- entry/exit door and also remotely controls the sliding prove transportation efficiency, resource utiliza- passenger gates of the BRT station platforms after tion and to ease traffic congestion. . . . We should manually docking at the station. The gap between the fully utilize public transportation's high capacity, platform and the bus depends on the skill of the driver. low cost advantage, and guide people to choose No provisions are apparent that would allow a rider public transport as the main way to travel.6 in a wheelchair to easily or independently board the buses, but tactile strips are embedded in the plat- forms to guide limited-vision ambulatory riders to SUSTAINABLE PUBLIC TRANSIT SYSTEMS the boarding gates. The station platforms are modest and typically are made of concrete, stainless steel, Bus Rapid Transit glass, and/or metal gating. Platforms appear to have In Ahmedabad, the Janmarg BRT system was been designed to maximize airflow, as no platforms developed by the Gujarat Infrastructure Development are enclosed or climate-controlled. Signage consists Board (GIDB) with planning and implementation of a mix of printed signs, light-emitting diode (LED) assistance from the Ahmedabad Urban Develop- signs, and system maps. ment Authority (AUDA) and the Ahmedabad Munic- Fare collection is handled through person-to- ipal Corporation (AMC). Operation on the first corri- person transactions at the entrances to stations. dor of the Janmarg BRT system began in October Fare-collection staff currently sell only single-journey 2009 and required approximately US$100 million in tickets, but use networked computers and ticket capital funding, consisting of 35% federal, 15% state, dispensers to aid in revenue control and accounting. and 50% municipal funds. The first corridor initially Ahmedabad residents generally prefer this type of covered 12 kilometers, with 58 kilometers approved personal cash transaction, and it allows for universal for five corridors. accessibility; however, heavy ridership at some sta- Janmarg BRT's operations is contracted to a pri- tions has resulted in long queues to purchase tickets, vate operator who is compensated based on the ser- sometimes exceeding scheduled headways. In re- vice level provided. Janmarg uses Tata-built, BRT- sponse, CEPT University and the operations contrac- specific, front-engine, nonarticulated buses. The BRT tor have accelerated efforts to institute a smartcard buses feature a distinctive front and rear fascia and a fare payment. While the loading of value will likely unique paint scheme to make them easily identifiable remain a person-to-person transaction, those with to riders. The BRT buses are fueled with modern existing balances on their cards will be able to skip diesel engines that meet Euro III emission standards. queues and proceed directly to electronic fare gates. The driver is physically separated from the riders by Responsibility for maintaining a state of good an engine housing situated to the left of the driver's repair is assigned to contractors who receive payment seat, as well as by vertical and horizontal railings. All from AMC based on the number of trips operated. buses are manually shifted, and air conditioning is AMC retains some fare revenue, along with proceeds provided on the newest buses, which are designated from the sale of developable parcels of excess land in with a sign, "A/C BUS," to inform riders. A global mixed-mode corridors where BRT is built, for an positioning system (GPS) provides real-time vehicle Urban Transport Fund. A primary purpose of the location to dispatchers, as well as real-time next-stop Urban Transport Fund is to provide for vehicle re- information to bus riders. placement and capital improvements as they become Janmarg BRT buses are essentially flat-floor/high- necessary on existing lines. For construction of new floor buses, and the BRT stations are configured to lines and procurement of new vehicles, the funding permit same-level boarding/alighting. The raised-floor responsibility is distributed between the federal gov- specification is critical to the elevated BRT station ernment, Gujarat state government, and the AMC. design. No automatic docking procedures are utilized. Janmarg BRT stations typically are located The driver controls the single mid-bus passenger mid-block, approximately 500 to 700 meters apart (Figure 1). No transit signal priority is provided at in- tersections, although agency staff members indicated 6Circular of the National Council, Ministry of Construction and that they are considering it at intersections that ex- other departments, People's Republic of China: Views on the hibit poor performance. The entire first corridor has development priority of urban public transport; SCS 2005-26. been constructed within the existing public right-of- 6
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In Ahmedabad, drivers often must steer around temples and shrines situated in the middle of what would be considered the BRT right-of-way. In addi- tion, cows--considered sacred animals--are free to meander onto roadways, including those shared by BRT buses, which can delay service. In the United States, transit agencies commit considerable resources to identify and mitigate potential impacts to historical or cultural resources, including either relocating the protected resource or realigning the corridor to avoid disturbing the important resource. The bus system in Delhi is operated by the Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC), a separate entity from the metro system. With 5,700 buses on the road each day (out of a total fleet of nearly 6,200 buses), the Figure 1 BRT station in Ahmedabad. DTC carries 4.2 million passengers daily, operates 100 bus terminals and services 4,800 bus stops way. BRT construction has provided significant im- throughout the city. With the exception of the head- provements at intersections and at choke points sign designations, the buses on the BRT routes are along the corridor, including very large roundabouts indistinguishable from the conventional, fixed-route at several high-traffic intersections and flyovers for buses (Figure 2). automobiles to ensure center-lane BRT operations Fares on DTC buses are distance-based, although in narrow rights-of-way. These improvements have higher fares are charged on red (climate-controlled) resulted in enhanced travel for other modes. High- buses than on green (non-climate-controlled) buses. density development has begun along the corridor, The service is subsidized by the government, with and additional development is planned. 25% of the city's budget going toward public trans- In the initial corridor, other public transportation portation. The government sets the salaries for the vehicles, including both public and private buses, have unionized bus drivers, and wages compose 67% of been allowed to use exclusive BRT lane segments their operating costs. that are interspersed with segments of mixed traffic. Through a public-private partnership, the Indian The exclusive lane segments also can be used by bus manufacturer Tata maintains the low-floor fleet emergency vehicles. on site for the DTC. DTC recently purchased 3,775 The Janmarg BRT travel surface and BRT station new low-floor buses, of which 1,200 buses are climate bus berths were constructed using hot-mix asphalt (HMA) concrete. Considerable shoving of the pave- ment has occurred, both in the queue areas at sig- nalized intersections and at several BRT station bus-berth areas. Staff is evaluating retrofitting those areas with a higher strength HMA concrete or with portland cement concrete, and the latter will likely be incorporated into the design of future BRT corridors. The driver-operated remote-controlled gate sys- tem provides a safe, simple-to-implement, and cost- effective system for boarding/alighting passengers. However, the opening/closing mechanism on some gates seems to struggle during normal operation. The design life and maintenance requirements of any gate system incorporated into a BRT program would appear to be important design parameters given that the gates must withstand a great number of duty cycles Figure 2 New CNG buses line up at the DTC depot in throughout a service day. Delhi. 7
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controlled. The buses operate on compressed natural be applied to future lines. Within India, the gradual gas (CNG) and are designed for 12 years or 750,000 introduction of a new transit mode and taking an in- kilometers. A maintenance contract equating to cremental approach to incorporating characteristics 4 rupees (US$0.09) per kilometer traveled was nego- that distinguish BRT from traditional bus service are tiated as part of the purchase contract. The purchase- identified as best practices. maintenance agreement requires the bus manufacturer The BRT system in Guangzhou is robust and to focus on the long-term viability of the bus design well-utilized. Officials at the Guangzhou BRT agency rather than merely the 1- or 2-year warranty period described BRT as incorporating the best features of that is typical for buses purchased in the United States. both metro rail transit and traditional bus transit, in- The high-floor buses are maintained directly by DTC cluding operating in dedicated lanes at high speeds employees. and utilizing high technology solutions, while requir- Delhi's BRT system is relatively new, currently ing less capital funding and less overall time to im- operating only a 5.8 kilometer corridor from the plement. The system operates along a corridor with Munchen Hospital to the Mool Chand Flyover. At very high density development and currently serves buildout, the BRT system will serve 14 corridors on 26 stations, providing up to 350 buses per hour more than 100 kilometers of BRT lanes. Each BRT (almost a 10-second frequency) during peak periods. station currently includes six to seven passenger Daily ridership on the corridor is approximately shelters. 800,000 people. The system uses a direct service No exclusive BRT lanes are provided. Lane model, incorporating the principal BRT route (des- marking is used instead of physical barriers, and ignated as "B1") and 40 local bus routes that simul- BRT buses operate in middle lanes. Three routes taneously provide direct feeder service onto the cor- on the BRT corridor are shared with local fixed ridor and service along the corridor. (Following a routes. Service frequency is 5 minutes for the BRT traditional trunk model, feeder buses would bring routes. Transit signal priority is provided using loops passengers from their points of origin to the corridor, in the queue area at intersections within the BRT where they would then transfer to the BRT trunk corridor. line and possibly transfer again to get to their final Because the stations are used by various public destinations.) and private transit providers, stations have no entry Particularly in the urban core, the BRT stations barriers and fare collection is handled on board the typically are located mid-block, with pedestrian fly- buses. This system does not necessarily result in in- overs using stairways or escalators in the busier sta- creased dwell times, largely thanks to the presence tions (Figure 3). This configuration is not wheelchair of conductors on the buses; however, it does limit accessible. At the joint BRT/Guangzhou Metro station the BRT service's ability to distinguish itself from that was being constructed, wheelchair accessibility other local bus services. The public company responsible for the develop- ment of BRT throughout Delhi is the Delhi Integrated Multimodal Transit System (DIMTS), which is a joint venture, equal-equity company set up between the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and the Infrastructure Develop- ment Finance Company. Established to tackle the problem of ineffective public transportation delivery and to provide expert services in the field of urban transport, DIMTS's mission ranges from identifying problems and opportunities in urban transport infra- structure to providing policy-level support for the government and government agencies, transportation planning and operations, and public outreach and ad- vocacy to promote public transport. With regard to BRT, DIMTS is examining whether additional ameni- ties and alternative operating characteristics should Figure 3 BRT station in Guangzhou. 8
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will require the use of cumbersome, handrail-mounted fold-out platforms to travel from one level to another. No automated docking is used in Guangzhou, so bus drivers must skillfully minimize the gap be- tween the station platform and the bus entry/exit floor. The platforms are separated from the bus lanes by glass partitions and elevator-door-style gates that align with the front and rear doors of the buses. This separation between the platform and travel lanes serves as a safety measure for customers when plat- forms are crowded and allows buses to dock at each station at speeds that maximize vehicle throughput. This arrangement also ensures that three vehicles may use each platform simultaneously. Sliding- glass doors are used to orient passengers to the cor- rect boarding areas, and each bus berth is marked with both printed and colored LED signs in both English and Chinese. Three-dimensional (3-D) maps used at the metro rail stations and at larger BRT stations show where the pedestrian exits are lo- cated in relation to nearby streets and landmarks (Figure 4). Other amenities on the BRT platforms include next-bus digital arrival information. This service is particularly useful to customers who can choose among multiple routes to a destination or who may be willing to take the next arriving bus to the farthest station it serves on the corridor. To gain entry to the BRT station, riders can use smartcards or purchase tokens from staffed kiosks. The same smartcards can be used to ride metro rail, Figure 4 Three-dimensional maps in Guangzhou travel in taxicabs, or rent bicycles that are available make it easy to locate pedestrian exits in relation to at each BRT station. Fares had been reduced from nearby streets and landmarks. between 2 yuan and 6 yuan (depending on distance) to a flat fare of 2 yuan. The buses operate on exclusive lanes located in mobiles are required to attend training at the traffic the middle of the BRT right-of-way, and each sta- control headquarters to learn how traffic is monitored tion along the corridor has adequate passing lanes. and controlled. In addition, two state-run radio sta- GPS is used to provide both real-time dispatching tions are located in the traffic control headquarters information and real-time passenger vehicle arrival so that real-time traffic information can be broadcast prediction information. during peak travel periods. Besides handling other traffic issues, the Guang- The Guangzhou BRT was constructed and is zhou traffic control headquarters provides real-time operated by a company created specifically for those assistance to BRT and local buses along the BRT purposes. This company is wholly owned by the corridor. Throughout Guangzhou, an additional 15 Guangzhou municipality and seeks financing for branch locations control intersections off the BRT expansion and capital improvements in private corridor. A total of 713 signalized intersections are markets. Domestic banks within China have pro- controlled at these 16 centers. On-bus transit signal vided a substantial portion of the financing. Even priority is not provided, but intersection signal phas- so, the network of buses serving the BRT line re- ing can be changed by the control center staff if buses quires a subsidy from the municipal government. begin to bunch or are delayed because of long signal Direct support to cover ongoing debt service is also queues. All newly licensed drivers of private auto- necessary. Accordingly, design of bus routes and 9
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vehicle specifications--including required emissions profiles--are handled directly by the municipality. Hangzhou's BRT system opened in 2006 and currently comprises 160 diesel-powered buses oper- ating on four routes, of which the third and fourth routes opened in January and February 2011. The BRT system is part of the extensive Hangzhou Public Transportation Group bus system that operates 9,000 buses on 500 routes. All BRT buses are color-coded to indicate the route (B1 = red, B2 = blue, B3 = green, and B4 = dark blue). The Hangzhou BRT stations in- corporate more ornate metalwork and more intricate floor treatments (involving interlocking pavers with demarcations for loading zones) as compared with BRT systems observed in other cities. Because the Hangzhou BRT system is more mature than that in Figure 5 Delhi's Metro is the centerpiece of its urban other cities, the landscaping is also fuller and more transit network. expansive. The station platforms are essentially at curb level, which provides near-level boarding of the BRT low-floor buses. GPS is used to provide real-time The Delhi Metro is being constructed in phases. dispatching information and real-time passenger Phase 1, which opened in 2005, consisted of 65 vehicle arrival predictions. kilometers built at a cost of US$2.1 billion, of which The Hangzhou BRT uses an outside-lane con- approximately 60% was financed by a soft loan (i.e., figuration, which increases conflicts with drivers with a below-market interest rate) from the Japanese of private automobiles as the drivers maneuver across government. Phase 2 consisted of 125 kilometers the BRT lane to access the automobile travel lane that were completed in 2011. Phase 2 was financed in the center of the road. Such outside-lane BRT ser- primarily by the federal and state governments. vices can, however, minimize conflict between pedes- The system now has six lines, operating with up to trians and automobiles, as passengers cross directly 4-minute headways. Phase 3 will add another 115 from the BRT station to the adjacent sidewalk. Com- kilometers, and Phase 4 will add 108 kilometers. plicating the situation in Hangzhou, a scooter/ Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) is currently bicycle lane separates the BRT lane from the sidewalk. preparing to accept proposals from the private sector No BRT station passing lanes were observed, nor to build elements of Phase 3. were the exclusive bus lanes wide enough to permit To achieve an integrated public transportation passing. network throughout Delhi, local buses have been rerouted to feed metro rail stations rather than compete against the operationally self-sustaining DMRC. To Metro bring the benefits of metro rail to neighborhoods not The team visited metro systems in Delhi, Guang- scheduled for service until Phases 3 or 4 become op- zhou, and Shanghai. All three cities have excellent erational, DMRC operates its own feeder bus network metro systems with very high ridership and aggressive to locations where substantial demand already exists. expansion plans. Hangzhou is beginning construction A joint ticketing system is being planned to serve of a metro system, and Ahmedabad is in the planning metro rail, BRT, and local buses. stages for a system. Approximately 65% of capital costs have been The centerpiece of Delhi's urban transit network financed through loans, primarily from the Japan In- is its metro rail system (Figure 5). Although the cap- ternational Cooperation Agency. DMRC generally ital cost of the system is substantial, so is the payoff: achieves operational profitability through a combina- savings of 492 metric tons of emissions per day, 217 tion of metro rail and feeder bus fares, the develop- metric tons of fuel per day, and 28 minutes per trip, according to a study conducted by the Central Road 7 Presentation on Delhi Metro by Dr. E. Sreedharan, Delhi Research lnstitute.7 Metro Rail Corporation, April 7, 2011. 10
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ment of air rights and land along rights-of-way, and consultation services to assist in the development of six other metro systems throughout India. Given this combination of funding sources, DMRC's incentive to operate according to the state-of-the-practices is not just a matter of local pride but also a matter of corporate competitiveness. About 20% of DMRC's annual revenue is unre- lated to fares. DMRC attempts to preserve between one-quarter and one-third of the rights-of-way pur- chased for metro rail construction for commercial and residential development. Substantial concession op- portunities also are available within stations. Also-- though carbon credits do not make up a substantial Figure 6 Shanghai Metro carries 5.2 million portion of nonfare revenue--DMRC has broken new passengers per day. ground for urban railway networks by earning carbon credits through the United Nations Framework Con- vention on Climate Change. Carbon credits are earned passengers on digital line diagrams posted in stations by saving energy in operation (through regenerative and on the system's website using the familiar braking) and by achieving modal shift. DMRC esti- colors of red, yellow, and green to represent loads. mates that the Delhi Metro has generated savings of A special traffic information radio station also 217 tons of fuel and 492 tons of emissions (includ- broadcasts this information throughout Shanghai; ing carbon dioxide) and prevented 161 road deaths, the station maintains a broadcast studio (also used resulting in approximately US$500,000 in credits for television reporting) in the metro rail operations earned through energy savings and US$3 million in control center. credits earned through modal shift. The Delhi Metro is accessible to persons with disabilities and has elevators installed at multilevel Bicycle-Share Programs stations. Personal escorts from station entrances to Both China and India have historically had a exits also are offered on request via telephone. Real- strong bicycle modal share. The disbursement of time next-train arrival information is provided at sta- industrial employment and the rapid expansion of tions as a customer amenity, and tap-and-go smart highly urbanized areas have, however, led to a sharp "tokens" are used for single journeys. As opposed to drop-off in the use of bicycles for commuting, partic- tickets with magnetic strips, these tokens cut process- ularly in China. In Delhi, the share of bicycle trips fell ing time at fare gates, reduce waste, and can be car- from 17% in 1981 to 7% by 1994. Transit agencies in ried safely in a pocket with no concern about damage both countries are attempting to increase the use of bi- caused by inadvertent bending or folding. cycles by incorporating bicycle-share programs into Shanghai's metro system operates 12 routes on their public transit systems. India's NUTP states that 420 kilometers of track and carries 5.2 million pas- "non-motorized modes are environmentally friendly sengers per day (Figure 6). The city plans to expand and have to be given their due share in the transport this system to 600 kilometers by the year 2015. Traf- system of a city," and that "the central government fic congestion is a major problem on the highways would give priority to the construction of cycle tracks leading in and out of Shanghai. and pedestrian paths in all cities."8 To accommodate demand, peak headways on Bicycle sharing was introduced to Delhi as part Shanghai's metro rail routes are as short as 2.5 min- of the GreenBike Cycle Initiative during the build- utes. Even so, congestion within the system can grow out and implementation of the BRT facility. This ini- so acute that control center staff must restrict entry tiative was led by and is managed by DIMTS as part to certain stations for short periods. Real-time of its programming. Five bicycle-sharing stations entry/exit data is processed at fare gates and trans- mitted to the operations control center to aid in such decisions. Congestion information is provided to 8 NUTP, pp. 1113. 11
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were established along the BRT corridor to inte- jumped 50% to 100% in different sections of the grate the new program with bus-based transport, BRT corridor during the first 6 months of operation.12 and DIMTS signed an agreement with Planet Ad- As the BRT network continues to expand, so will the vertising Pvt. Ltd. to build, operate, and manage bicycle-share program. the bike stations for a period of 5 years. As in man- A user of the bicycle-share system must first reg- agement schemes for bicycle-share systems else- ister and pay a deposit of 300 yuan (US$46). The where, the concessionaire agreed to make the initial first hour of bicycle use is free, and the next hour investment and bears the recurring charges for the costs 1 yuan (US$0.15). Each subsequent hour costs maintenance and upkeep of the facilities, paying 3 yuan (US$0.46). This fee structure was designed 20,000 rupees (US$450) per month per station to to encourage the use of bicycles for short trips around DIMTS. The concessionaire earns revenue by selling the city. Most users tend to use the service for about advertisement space on cycle stations and from 1020 minutes. Users access the bicycles with their rental charges.9 smartcards. Like Delhi, Guangzhou implemented its bicycle- Hangzhou, just 45 minutes away from Shanghai share program coincident with the implementation of via the new high-speed train, has the largest bicycle- a BRT system. Guangzhou was the first city in China share system in the world, with 60,000 bicycles to include bicycle parking and bicycle sharing in its available at 2,411 bicycle-share stations. In the city's BRT station design, in hopes that more BRT riders main districts, the average distance between two ser- would make their "last mile" connection on a bicycle. vice points is just 200300 meters (less than one- The government of Guangzhou initiated the bicycle- fifth of a mile), which means a bicycle-share station share program and created the Guangzhou Public is situated on almost every block in the city. In the Bicycle Operations and Management Corporation to suburbs, the average distance between two service manage and operate the service. Planning and design points increases to 500800 meters (less than one- of the bicycle stations within the BRT system was half mile). When the program was established in done by GMEDRI with the assistance of ITDP. The May 2008, it included 61 stations and 2,800 bicycles. bicycle-share program also involved construction of In 2010, 75 million bicycle trips were made using new bicycle infrastructure, including hundreds of Hangzhou's bicycle-share system--an average of kilometers of greenways and single- and double-tier 205,000 trips each day. bike parking.10 The Hangzhou Public Bicycle Company is an The bicycle-share program opened just months affiliate of the Public Transportation Group operated after the BRT opened in 2010. Initially, the bicycle- by the municipal government. It is responsible for share program comprised 18 stations offering 1,000 the construction, operation, and development of the bicycles to the public.11 Two months later, the pro- public bicycle system in the city. The focus of the gram had nearly quadrupled, expanding to meet the program is to provide an attractive alternative to driv- increased demand for its services. In less than a year, ing a private automobile. The first hour's use of the the bicycle-share program had grown to 113 stations system is free, with the second hour charged at 1 yuan offering 5,000 bicycles along the BRT line. As the ($0.15), the third hour charged at 2 yuan ($0.31), and city's population approached 15 million, the program any subsequent hours charged at 3 yuan ($0.46). The had to quickly be expanded to meet the continuing success of Hangzhou's bicycle-share program is growth in demand for bicycle-share services in a due to the convenient locations of the bike stations viable way. throughout the city. Most of Guangzhou's 800,000 daily BRT pas- The Hangzhou Public Bicycle Company plans to sengers also use the bicycle-share program. Cycling expand the bike-share system to 175,000 bicycles by 2020. A company manager said, 9GreenBike Cycling Rental and Sharing Scheme. www.slide During the peak hours, there is heavy demand share.net/jaaaspal/greenbike-cycle-sharing-concept-in-india. for bikes. At this point we have station attendants 10Fjellstrom, K. Year of the Transit Tiger in Guangzhou. Sus- to help with the drop-off of bikes in many of our tainable Transport, Vol. 22 (Winter) 2010, pp. 1015. 11Warrier, N. Summary of the Process of Implementing the 12Fjellstrom, K. Year of the Transit Tiger in Guangzhou. Sus- Public Bicycle System in Guangzhou, China. www.slideshare. net/rgadgi/guangzhou-bike-share-nitin-warrier. tainable Transport, Vol. 22 (Winter) 2010, pp. 1015. 12
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high volume stations, particularly in the morning. vices unrelated to transportation also are handled by We have more people dropping off bikes than this center.) Bicycle-share customers experiencing drop-off banks available. The attendants help us problems with point-of-sale machines or bike-locking with recalibrating the system. There is high de- mechanisms can often be assisted electronically, as mand for this program. agents in the control center are able to issue manual The manager also emphasized that customer ser- transaction overrides. They are also able to dispatch vice was the priority in supporting the growth of the maintenance staff to handle problems with the bi- system, saying, "It is important for us to resolve any cycles. Some maintenance work can be performed issue fast. On a recent customer public survey, the on site, but more serious overhauls and the quarterly public bicycle system had the highest satisfaction maintenance checks are performed at the maintenance rate among all the projects in city development." depot. Between 1,000 and 1,500 bicycles are worked When asked about the management of the system on each day, and the bicycles have an expected usable and any incidents of robberies, he added, "There are life of 3 to 5 years. many service points in the city. People don't need The bicycles are mechanically simple. They op- to steal our bicycles because they are basically free erate in only one gear, and they are equipped with to use." hand brakes and warning bells. Bicycles with varying An interoperable smartcard is available for use seat heights generally are available at each station. in renting bicycles at each bike-share station and for The seats are adjustable, but the height can be changed riding the city's BRT system, local buses, parking, only by staff. The bicycles are brightly colored and and taxis. Each of these modes is considered an in- have highly visible branding. The geometry and fea- tegral part of the transit network in the city, and to- tures of the bicycles make them easily recognizable gether they provide a strong incentive for residents (Figure 7). to limit their use of private automobiles. Shanghai is moving forward with its bicycle- Bicycle-share locations have focused on density, share program as it expands its impressive trans- with most stations located near residential complexes, portation network. Currently, 20,000 bicycles are employment and activity centers, and major travel available for rent in one of the city's districts and, on corridors. With the construction of the first metro line average, each bike is used to make four or five trips in Hangzhou, the city is now moving toward modal per day. Users pay a deposit of 200 yuan (US$29) integration. and the first half-hour is free, after which bicycle Hangzhou has attracted a new market for bicy- users are charged 1 to 3 yuan per hour on a progres- cling through its extensive network of bike lanes. Most sive system designed to encourage short-term rentals of the system's bike lanes are separated from other and quick turnover. Planning is underway to expand forms of traffic to make bicycling more appealing. The the bicycle-share system throughout Shanghai. bicycle-share stations are located conveniently near bus stops and parking lots. According to officials in Hangzhou, 40% of the bicycles provided by the bicycle-share program are used for commuting, 40% are used as feeders to the buses, 10% are used by tourists, and 10% are used for exercise. Staff at a state-of-the-art operations and control center monitor bicycle-share stations through closed- circuit television. Individual rental transactions also can be monitored at the control center because each station is connected through a fiberoptic net- work and customer call boxes. Up to 10 telephone op- erators are on staff at any given time, and up to five additional employees are required to monitor the streaming video and data from the bike-share stations. The control center serves as the general customer information center for all transportation services Figure 7 Bicycle-sharing station near Hangzhou's provided by the city. (Complaints about city ser- popular West Lake. 13