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10 On May 15, 2008, a Milwaukee County teenager as- Profile studies on specific security practices and mea- saulted a bus operator whom he mistakenly believed sures were conducted. was the operator who had previously expelled him from a bus for displaying a fake pass. After attacking the operator, the teen took control of the bus and crashed it Literature Summary into a tree. The teen was a 17-year-old former Milwau- kee public school student. His identification and capture A literature summary of relevant materials on workplace vio- was facilitated by footage from a video surveillance lence, operator assault, and transit security measures was system (20). performed by consulting various sources. International stud- On December 27, 2007, a NJ Transit bus operator was ies were also reviewed. injured in Newark by a cane-wielding passenger after a fare dispute escalated into a physical fight. The passen- ger caused serious trauma to the operator's left eye and Survey was charged with aggravated assault (21). A rough ride, whether or not the operator was responsi- The objective of the survey was to obtain information about ble, can also instigate assaults. On December 22, 2006, bus system and security characteristics; agency policies on in Dorchester, Massachusetts, an MBTA bus operator fare and rules enforcement; characteristics of bus operator slammed on his brakes after being cut off. One of the assaults; and their assault prevention and mitigation prac- passengers became upset and initiated a fistfight with tices, including training, hiring, use of policing, technology, the operator, who had to be treated at a hospital. The and self-defense tools and training. The draft survey instru- passenger was taken into custody (22). ment was developed, pilot-tested, and finalized on the basis of panel comments and input. The survey was distributed electronically or by mail to 88 multimodal and bus-only tran- PROJECT OBJECTIVES sit agencies. Survey recipients included the 50 largest U.S. transit agencies operating bus services as well as randomly The primary objectives of this synthesis study were to docu- selected agencies representing medium and small agencies. ment the state of the practice and report on the practices and Several Canadian agencies and a Chinese BRT system were policies implemented by transit agencies to deter and mitigate also included in the distribution. Of the 88 agencies con- passenger assaults of bus operators. This report incorporates tacted for the survey, 66 agencies, or 75%, responded. The workplace violence issues, up-to-date information on bus oper- survey tool and list of respondents are presented in Appen- ator security measures and practices, and other related issues. dices B and C. Relevant resources for the synthesis project were reviewed, and the contractor team participated in a conference call to Profiles obtain feedback on the project objectives, survey, and desired outcomes of the project. This information led to the develop- The profiles are studies focused on a specific security prac- ment of a technical approach to the project. A project time- tice or measure category. The objectives of the profile stud- line was created based on the technical approach, specific ies were to obtain increased coverage of specific security tasks needed to complete the project, and the deadlines pro- methods and practices used by the selected transit agencies. vided by TRB. The organizations to be interviewed were selected on the basis of survey responses, panel recommendations, and the Issues mentioned but not explored extensively in the syn- results of the literature summary. Effort was made to obtain thesis were the impact of fare-free systems and off-board fare information from diverse agencies; in some cases an agency payment systems. Synthesis projects on these topics began in was able to provide profile information on more than one cat- the fall of 2010. egory. Open-ended questions covering a range of issues were developed for each security measure featured in the profile. TECHNICAL APPROACH TO PROJECT Profiles were developed by contacting relevant agency The objectives of the project were met by performing the fol- practitioners on the following categories of operator protec- lowing tasks: tion measures: A literature summary of relevant materials was con- Technology and information management; ducted. Personnel, policing, and training; and A survey was developed and distributed to 88 large and Agency policies and legislation. small transit agencies in various geographic regions of the United States and Canada, and one system in China. The profile agencies are presented in Table 1.