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12 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE SUMMARY Significant investments in transit security have been made Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide (2003)--and the and new transit security initiatives implemented since Sep- National Incident Management System issued by DHS (2008). tember 11, 2001. Although some of these initiatives have focused solely on counterterrorism, many are all-hazards in Nakanishi, Y., TCRP Synthesis 80: Transit Security Update, approach and are effective in mitigating operator assaults as Transportation Research Board of the National Acade- well. Therefore, transit security literature items that cover mies, Washington, D.C., 2009. both counterterrorism and general crime are summarized. TCRP Synthesis 80: Transit Security Update, by Dr. Yuko Workplace violence literature is included because passenger Nakanishi, describes security practices and policing methods assault of operators is a subset of workplace violence and implemented by transit agencies in the United States. It strategies developed to address workplace violence can assist focuses on new postSeptember 11, 2001, initiatives and in addressing violence against operators. In addition to rele- measures that address both terrorism and crime. vant transit security and workplace violence literature, liter- ature on operator training and selection, self-defense, video The author states that violent crimes occurring within surveillance, and international studies and practices have transit systems evoke strong emotions in the public, along been summarized as well. with intense media coverage, and have a significant impact on passenger perception of security. Chapter five of TCRP Synthesis 80 focuses on conflict mitigation, which is espe- TRANSIT SECURITY cially pertinent to preventing operator assaults. Transit security investments and preparedness strategies are Bus security measures including policing methods, video now being determined based on an all-hazards approach. surveillance and issues related to image quality and storage Because bus operators are considered to be the first line of requirements, Crime Prevention Through Environmental defense against violent incidents on buses, including terror- Design (CPTED), communications, school outreach efforts, ism, security of buses and bus operators is of prime impor- and bus operator training are discussed in the report. The lit- tance to the DHS, the TSA, and the FTA. Reports released by erature summary in Appendix B includes coverage of rele- these agencies have bearing on the protection of bus opera- vant FTA and TSA reports, TCRP and NCHRP reports, and tors to a greater or lesser extent. A TCRP synthesis report literature on CompStat, CPTED, and interoperable commu- released in 2009, Transit Security Update, includes security nications. measures, technologies, and policing methods applicable to the protection of bus operators. These transit security docu- The literature summary included the following relevant ments are reviewed in this subchapter. information: Chandler, K. L., P. J. Sutherland, and H. Saporta, An Intro- TSA, Mass Transit Annex to Transportation Systems duction to All-Hazards Preparedness for Transit Agencies, Sector Security Plan [Online]. Available: http://www. Federal Transit Administration, Washington, D.C., 2010. This document presents a coordinated security- All-hazards preparedness for transit agencies is a risk priori- enhancement strategy for public transportation and tization and management process to allocate resources effec- passenger rail systems. TSA's system-based risk man- tively to reduce safety, security, and emergency management agement methodology and transit security fundamentals risks continually and to prevent, protect, control, and miti- are discussed. gate incidents and adverse events. This document defines and FTA Safety and Security website, http://transit-safety. describes all-hazards preparedness and provides a high-level The website contains informa- process and illustrative examples for applying an all-hazards tion about FTA's security initiatives, Transit Watch preparedness process that is consistent with the national program, guidelines and best practices, training tools, guidance on all-hazards preparedness presented in the National and other strategic and research products of interest to Preparedness Guidelines. The report is based on two FTA transit agencies. publications--Hazard Analysis Guidelines for Transit Proj- FTA, Transit Agency Security and Emergency Manage- ects (2000), the Public Transportation System Security and ment Protective Measures, 2006. Six security categories