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13 addressed in the report are information and intelligence; Society for Human Resources Management, verbal threats security and emergency management; regional coordi- were the most common form of workplace violence. The lit- nation; information technology and communications sys- erature emphasizes the importance of reporting all incidents tems; employee and public communications. and threats and of a supportive and responsive employer in all Kelling, G. and C. Coles, Fixing Broken Windows: Re- aspects of workplace violence, including prevention, employee storing Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities, support, proper reporting, and handling. In addition, the lit- Simon and Schuster, New York, N.Y., 1997. Kelling and erature emphasizes the importance of employee support after Coles expressed the importance of targeting minor inci- violence has occurred. dents and maintaining order to prevent more serious ones from arising. Survey of Workplace Violence Prevention, 2005, News McDonald, P. P., Managing Police Operations: Imple- Release, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of menting the NYPD Crime Control Model Using Comp- Labor, Washington, D.C., Oct. 27, 2006. Stat, Wadsworth Publishing, New York, N.Y., 2001. A The Survey of Workplace Violence Prevention was con- description of CompStat and how it was implemented ducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the National and operated within NYPD to prevent and address Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Dis- crime problems was provided. ease Control and Prevention. The topics covered included Banerjee, R., "The ABCs of TCO (Total Cost of Owner- incidence of workplace violence, types of security, and pro- ship): The True Costs of IP Video Surveillance," Video grams and policies. Interested observations included the fol- Technology and Applications, Feb. 2008. A breakdown lowing: Half of the largest establishments (employing 1,000 of the Total Costs of Ownership for video surveillance or more workers) reported an incident in the past year, technology is provided, and video recorder types and whereas only 5% of all establishments had a violent incident, storage issues are also addressed. and, not surprisingly, service-providing industries had much TRB, TCRP Web Document 18: Developing Useful higher percentages of customer, criminal, and domestic vio- Transit-Related Crime and Incident Data, April 2000. lence than goods-producing industries. State governments, Primary data sources of crime statistics are described. followed by local governments, had higher percentages of all Issues of crime under-reporting and crime definitions types of workplace violence incidents. The authors concluded are addressed. that the higher incidences for state and local governments Allan, D. and J. Volinski, Cops, Cameras, and Enclo- were the result of their work environment--working in direct sures: A Synthesis of Effectiveness of Methods to Provide contact with the public, having mobile workplace or deliver- Enhanced Security for Bus Operators, Report No. 392- ing goods or services, working in high-crime areas, working 12, National Center for Transit Research, CUTR, May in small numbers, working in community-based settings, and 31, 2001. This study's overall survey results revealed working with unstable or volatile persons. In terms of effects that the violence prevention operator training was ranked of the violence, 36% of establishments had employees that highest in cost-effectiveness, followed by in-house se- were negatively affected, with more than 20% experiencing curity and plainclothes security. In terms of onboard se- impacts on fear levels and morale. curity, in-house security and plainclothes security were considered to be the most effective. In terms of cost, con- Workplace Violence: Issues in Response, FBI Academy, U.S. Department of Justice, Quantico, Va., Feb. 2001. tracted personnel were considered to be more expensive The FBI Workplace Violence report was based on the pro- than in-house personnel. In terms of technology, video ceedings of the Workplace Violence Intervention Research surveillance was considered to be the most effective, Workshop. It notes the importance of workplace culture in although the panic button connected with the headsign encouraging employees to report incidents and in training was considered the most cost-effective. At the time of employees to identify threats. The report highlights the neg- the report, MiamiDade Transit and San Francisco ative impact of emotional distress caused by workplace vio- MUNI had started to implement partial enclosures on lence, whether physical or verbal, and the importance of pro- their bus fleets. viding counseling and support immediately after a violent event has occurred. Workplace violence prevention mea- WORKPLACE VIOLENCE sures are grouped into environmental methods, organiza- tional and administrative practices, programs and policies, Workplace violence literature and training materials gener- and behavioral or interpersonal issues. The importance of inci- ally recommend the training of workers who deal with the dent management strategies, including addressing employee public in recognizing and diffusing potentially violent situa- reactions and concerns, provision of professional support, tions, as well as the establishment of a workplace violence proper communication, and improving preventive measures policy and reporting process. According to the American are mentioned. Also included in the Workplace Violence report Society of Industrial Security, the top strategy for preventing are case studies on threatening behavior, threat to kill, fright- workplace violence was employee training, and the second ening behavior, disruptive behavior, intimidation, and threat place strategy was zero-tolerance policies. According to the assessment, as well as recommendations on what employees