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14 could do in each scenario. Sample response protocols and with individuals who may be mentally impaired or under the workplace violence policy statements are also provided. influence of drugs or alcohol. The authors stress the importance of listening, empathizing with others, looking for a win/win solution, and seeing the situation from another's perspective. BUS OPERATOR TRAINING AND SELECTION The five tools in voluntary compliance are explained. Verbal judo techniques may be similar to some verbal de-escalation Bus operator training prepares the bus operator for a range of and conflict mitigation strategies being taught to new and stressful situations, including fare issues, rules violations, existing bus operators. and irrational or combative passengers, and assists the oper- ator in remaining calm and prudent during the situation. Bus FTA's Safety and Security website, http://transit-safety.fta. operator selection is important because an operator skilled at dot.gov/. and experienced in customer relations and in handling stress- Relevant security and safety information and courses deliv- ful situations may be less likely to be the victim of an assault. ered through the National Transit Institute (NTI), Trans- Also, recruiting the wrong candidate is costly to the agency-- portation Safety Institute (TSI), The Johns Hopkins Univer- if he or she stays and performs badly, lives may be endan- sity, and the Volpe Center are found on the FTA's Safety and gered. APTA's recommended practice documents are useful Security website. Violence in the Transit Workplace Preven- for transit agencies in training operators and their supervisors. tion, Response and Recovery is a 4-h NTI course. It provides transit employees, supervisors, and labor representatives with American Public Transit Association, Recommended Practice information on how to prevent, respond to, and recover from for Transit Bus Operator Training, APTA BTS-BO-RP- violence in the workplace. The course is provided free of 001-07, Washington, D.C., updated June 2009. charge to relevant employees of the transportation industry. The recommended practice states that bus operator training Prevention methods covered in the course include system programs contain the following topics: regulatory, agency- and personal security measures; recognizing and reporting specific requirements, customer service, technical, and safety the warning signs of potentially violent behavior; and using and security. The topics that pertain to this synthesis include effective interpersonal skills in dealing with different, diffi- safety and security, customer service, and technical training. cult, and dangerous people. Response strategies focus on In the safety and security section, recommended training top- self-preservation and the importance of accurate reporting. ics include assault prevention, stress management, defensive The recovery portion addresses the stress associated with driving and road rage, security awareness and emergency pro- violence and what employees can do to mitigate it. cedures, security emergencies including assaults and threats, weapons, and incident investigation and documentation pro- TSI's Transit Bus System Safety course helps agencies cedures. Customer service training includes understanding create a Transit Bus System Safety plan and addresses pas- the role of the professional transit operator, understanding senger incidents, vehicle collisions, and selection and train- the customer (different levels of abilities, socioeconomic sta- ing of bus operators. Other training courses provide customer tus, age, cultural issues, and diversity), communications, dif- relations skills, including understanding of diverse popula- ficult situations and emotional or personal "hot buttons" and tions. Note that there are other relevant courses that focus on triggers, and customers with disabilities. Technical training training transit managers. TCRP Project A-36, Command- includes understanding bus features, including safety and secu- Level Decision-Making for Transit Emergency Managers, is rity technologies, and driving in adverse conditions. Note that expected to provide interactive training for transit managers APTA has also issued a Recommended Practice for Transit in incident response and emergencies. Although there are Supervisor Training, APTA BTS-BO-RP-002-07. significant differences between passenger assaults against bus operators and terrorism, training courses focused on ter- Thompson, G. J. and J. Jenkins, Verbal Judo: The Gentle Art rorism awareness can be useful for conveying the importance of Persuasion, Quill, New York, N.Y., 2004. of awareness and spotting suspicious behaviors. Thompson and Jenkins describe verbal judo as the use of communications skills to mitigate conflict situations and defuse Terrorist Activity Recognition and Reaction (TARR) is an them before they become violent. Training in verbal judo is NTI course that provides employees with training on how to provided to many law enforcement personnel and has been recognize behaviors associated with terrorist activity. Warn- adapted and incorporated into bus operator training content ing Signs, a video produced by the NTI with FTA support, provided by some transit agencies. Although judo is a mar- reinforces system security concepts, including what to look tial art, it does not promote violence or aggression but, instead, for and what to do when confronted with suspicious activi- focuses on empathy, harmony, and respect. Similarly, verbal ties, objects, and behavior. System Security Awareness for judo training emphasizes dignity, professionalism, and respect Transit Employees is a 3- to 4-h NTI course for frontline in communicating with the public and teaches participants transit employees and a 5- to 6-h course for instructors. how to speak without escalating conflict, how to be efficient Although the course primarily addresses suspicious incidents in speech--saying it right the first time--and how to deal and identification of terrorist activity, elements of the course