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18 able training content. Recommendations based on the survey with barriers have made them optional for operators. Systems analysis included development of a database for documenta- that had considered but decided not to install barriers have tion of incidents over time, pursuit of funding, lobbying for made the decision on the basis of operator comfort, reflection more violence prevention regulations, progress evaluations, and glare issues, and diminished customer contact; they have and increased sample sizes for future surveys. also increased or initiated operator training in conflict manage- ment. The study concluded that the barriers were not consid- ered to be very effective. The best nontechnological prevention INTERNATIONAL STUDIES tools were believed to be partnerships with police, security per- sonnel, and operator training. International practices to protect bus operators by transit sys- tems can provide U.S. and Canadian agencies with ideas on TCRP Research Results Digest 58: Safety and Security innovative measures. Many European cities have had prob- Issues at All-Bus Systems in Small- to Medium-Sized Cities lems with violence within their transit systems and have devel- in Western Europe, International Transit Studies Program. oped and implemented methods to counter this violence. A Transportation Research Board of the National Acade- recent International Union of Public Transport aggression study and the results of a 2003 TCRP study are described in mies, Washington, D.C., 2003. this section. This TCRP Research Results report described security prob- lems experienced by bus transit systems in Western Europe Bonfanti, G. and T. Wagenknecht, Human Factors Reduce Ag- and the methods used to combat them. The researchers con- gression and Fare Evasion, Jan./Feb. 2010, PTI, pp. 2832. cluded that the best approaches, based on these Western Euro- The authors describe the results of the International Union of pean experiences, were to establish good policies, including Public Transport aggression study performed by the Bus Com- zero tolerance-type strategies, and to address problems caused mittee and Human Resources Commission in 2008 and 2009 by youths by influencing social values and educating transit with data provided by more than 30 transit agencies and oper- users at a very early age. Sheffield provided an incentive for ators from 19 nations. Aggression is defined as violent physi- schools to assist them in combating violence. Each day their cal contact or threat with weapons towards transit personnel students behave, the school receives bus miles that may be and other passengers. Results of the study indicated that ag- exchanged for free school trips. Other methods included sup- gression toward bus personnel was more frequent and prob- port pay, locating bus layovers in safe locations, use of glazed lematic than aggression toward rail personnel, and occurred windows, and a concealed starter switch. Barriers and com- most often in the late afternoon. The majority of the aggres- partments were adopted by Translink in Belfast, Arriva in sions were located inside the vehicle in the operator's area. Liverpool, First in Sheffield, and others. Translink's screen Technological tools that were most widely employed by the has a small opening that may be opened in case the operator responding operators were video surveillance, alarms linked has a medical emergency. Translink also provides an escape to radio communications, and protected operators' cabins or hatch for operators because the barrier glass cannot be broken. windows. Alarms connected to radio communications were Translink operators have reported that they did not like the believed to be the most effective technological security mea- enclosure. In terms of video surveillance, Translink had real sure, followed by video surveillance. System operators planned and dummy video cameras installed on their buses to mitigate to increase usage of video surveillance and alarms in their vandalism. Arriva and Manchester had visible and hidden bus fleet, but planned to decrease use of barriers. Systems video cameras, also designed to address vandals.